Laparoscopic Anatomy of the Abdomen in Dorsal Recumbent Male Donkey

Research Article

Austin J Anat. 2016; 3(3): 1056.

Laparoscopic Anatomy of the Abdomen in Dorsal Recumbent Male Donkey

Mohamed NA¹* and Wefky AM²

¹Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

²Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

*Corresponding author: Mohamed NA, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, New Valley, Egypt

Received: September 20, 2016; Accepted: October 17, 2016; Published: October 17, 2016;


Laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen in dorsal recumbent male donkey was an applied anatomical study. Provide an accurate and detailed description of the laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen of donkey positioned in dorsal recumbency was considered a diagnostic and a therapeutic surgical importance. The laparoscopy was performed on ten adult apparently healthy male donkeys in average of 7-12 years old, in order to record the normal laparoscopic anatomy of abdomen in dorsal recumbency. The preoperative techniques were considered. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with total intravenous agents. Laparoscope was delivered into the abdomen via an umbilical main cannula. Laparoscope and associated video recording system were used to obtain a clear, magnified and panoramic shoots of the abdominal cavity. The anatomical findings were more real and vital than that of fixed condition. The prestaltic motility as well as the vascularization of the serous layer of peritoneum and the abdominal organs was notified. The study was fully described two dangerous triangular areas; TD and TP especially during endoscopic repair of inguinal hernia. The work considered as a gate to further endoscopic anatomy and the donkey was an ideal experimental model.

Keywords: Donkey; Laparoscopy; Dorsal recumbency; Laparoscopic anatomy


Endoscopic anatomy of live animal differs than structural anatomy in cadaver. For successful laparoscopy, surgeons need to gain full detailed anatomical information about structures dealing within the abdomen. Different studies described the laparoscopic anatomy of dogs, Atiba [1] and equines, Galuppo et al. [2]. Most of the authors deal with describing fixed animal bodies using formalin 10% concentrate El- Hagri [3], Nickle et al. [4], Dyce et al. [5] & Konig and Liebichin [6] in domestic animals.

In the recent study, try to describe the abdominal structures in the life state. The anatomical describing terminology according to NAV [7].

Laparoscopy is an endoscopic surgical procedure by which a variety of intra-abdominal and pelvic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures can be performed Kumar [8].

Since the first canine experimental laparoscopic procedure in 1901, laparoscopic procedures were described in different animal species including equine Hendrickson [9], cattle, Babkine and Desrochers [10], small ruminants Dovenski et al. [11], canines Abd El-Alim [12] and in some exotic animals Anderson et al. [13]. Laparoscopy is a minimal invasive procedure aims to achieve the purpose of traditional surgical procedures with minimal intra and post-operative complications and as well as tissue damage.

Food withholding period, degree of pneumoperitoneum and animal position are main factors affecting organ arrangement and relationship within the abdominal cavity, another factor affecting the endoscopic view of abdominal cavity is the endoscope port position.

Materials and Methods

Ten adult apparently healthy local breed donkeys with average weight 230-250 kgs aged from 7-12 years were submitted for the study.

Animals were fasted for 24 hours and water was allowed ad lib. Prior surgery, general health chick up was performed to ascertain good general health status of experimental animals. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatories were administered 12 hours prior and 72 hours post surgery.

Animals were sedated by using xylazine Hcl in a dose of 1.1 mg/kg Bwt and anesthesia was induced by Ketamine Hcl in a dose of 2.2 mg/kg Bwt Anesthesia was maintained by repeated one third ketamine dose Delling [14]. Local analgesic was infiltrated at the umbilicus. Animals were dorsally positioned and secured by robes to the surgical table.

Ventral abdomen was clipped, scrubbed, draped and prepared for aseptic surgery. The umbilicus incised and grasped by two towel clamps and the main portal safety cannula inserted directly into the abdominal cavity [15].

Standard pneumoperitoneum to 12 mm hg was created using automatic insufflator. Rigid endoscope with 10 mm outer diameter, 45 cm length and zero degree viewing angles connected to high definition video camera and display were used to obtain a highly magnified intra abdominal view.

Xenon cold day light was used to illuminate the abdominal cavity. Anatomical structures of the abdominal cavity were obtained while animal in Trendelenburg position [the head tilted down the level of hind quarter] while the anatomy of cranial portion of abdominal cavity was obtained with the animal positioned in reverse Trendelenburg position [the head up position] (Figure 1).