Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng. 2014;1(5): 5.
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, India
*Corresponding author: Handique PJ, Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
Received: September 12, 2014; Accepted: October 15, 2014; Published: October 17, 2014
Concern on various aspects of medicinal plants is gaining momentum and research focus is increasing on a wide spectrum of activities starting form in vitro propagation to metabolomics. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook F & Thoms, is one of the important medicinal plant species widely used for various medicinal purposes particularly in India. However, due to large scale exploitation for commercial purpose, Tinospora cordifolia is facing rarity in natural habitats of India. This review includes the aspects of in vitro propagation and medicinal attributes including anti-microbial properties of Tinospora cordifolia. Biomedical study on the species and information based on metabolomics besides other biotechnological investigations including molecular characterization of diverse germplasm constitute the future scope of the review.
Keywords: Tinospora cordifolia; Micropropagation; Medicinal attributes; Guduchi; Antimicrobial
Medicinal plants are considered as green gold owing to their invaluable contribution to the health care and wellbeing of human societies. The use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in most developing countries, as a normative basis for the maintenance of good health, has been widely observed . The use of medicinal plants with traditional know how is a much prevalent medicinal practice in India. Medicinal plants are widely used by all sections of the Indian population and it has been estimated that, in total over 7500 species of plant species are used by a number of ethnic communities [2,3]. In recent years, concern on various aspects of medicinal plants is gaining momentum and research focus is increasing on a wide spectrum of activities starting form in vitro propagation to metabolomics.
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook F & Thoms, is one of the important medicinal plant species widely used for various medicinal purposes particularly in India (Figure 1,2). The species is commonly known in India as 'Guduchi' (Sanskrit), 'Giloy' (Hindi) and 'Saguni lota' (Assam). It is a large deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the family Menispermaceae. It is distributed throughout the tropical Indian sub-continent ascending to an altitude of 300m. Due to its medicinal importance, T. cordifolia has been highly exploited for commercial purposes. At present the species is facing rarity in natural habitats of India. Recently, the National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB) of India has prioritized this species for mass multiplication. In this context, biotechnological methods are considered as inevitable to promote commercial level cultivation of this species. This review encompasses the tissue culture propagation, chemistry and antimicrobial properties of Tinospora cordifolia.
Figure 1: Fruiting twig of Tinospora cordifolia.
Figure 2: Tender twig of Tinospora cordifolia creeping on iron fencing.
Tinospora cordifolia is used for a number of medicinal purposes (Table 1). The plant is extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for its general tonic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic properties. The plant is also used in Ayurvedic 'Rasayanas' to improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections. The root of this plant is known for its anti-stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial activities . The plant is mentioned in Ayurvedic literature as a constituent of several compound preparations, used in general debility, dyspepsia, fevers and urinary diseases. Antiviral properties against Ranikhet disease in poultry have also been ascribed to this climber .
System of medicine/ test method
Improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections.
Anti-stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial
Antiviral properties against Ranikhet disease in poultry
Anti-stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial
Stimulates bile secretion; causes constipation; allays thirst, burning sensation and vomiting; enriches the blood and cures jaundice; useful in skin diseases
Root and stem
Anti-dote to snakebite and scorpion sting
Dried bark (stem)
Anti-spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-leprotic.
Treatment of gout and as a liniment in erysipelas
As tonic and also for jaundice and rheumatism
Treatment of throat cancer in humans
Treatment of allergic rhinitis
[46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53]
Table 1: Medicinal attributes of Tinospora cordifolia.
The stem of Tinospora is bitter, stomachic, diuretic ; stimulates bile secretion; causes constipation; allays thirst, burning sensation and vomiting; enriches the blood and cures jaundice. The extract of the mature stem is useful in skin diseases [7,8]. The root and stem of T. cordifolia are prescribed in combination with other drugs as an anti-dote to snakebite and scorpion sting [5,9]. Dry barks have anti-spasmodic, anti-pyretic , anti-allergic , anti-inflammatory [12,13] and anti-leprotic properties . Decoction of the leaves was reported to be used for treatment of gout and young leaves were used as a liniment in erysipelas . Root is a powerful emetic and used for visceral obstruction, its watery extract is used in leprosy. Pulverized fruit is used as a tonic and also for jaundice and rheumatism . This plant species is reported as for treating diabetes [17-19]. Tinospora cordifolia has been reported to treat throat cancer in humans . The plant species has also been reported to show efficacy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis .
In a recent review, the genetic diversity of the plant and active components isolated from the plant and their biological role in disease targeting was discussed thoroughly . Another comprehensive review describes the medicinal prominence of Tinospora cordifolia in therapeutics as well as its morphology, growth constraints, biochemical composition, biological activities, and the future prospects of this important medicinal plant species . An inclusive review is also available on various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia described in Ayurveda, along with phytochemical and pharmacological reports .
Development of plant tissue culture technology offers a great potential for rapid multiplication of plant germplasm. It serves as a powerful tool for short to medium term conservation of important plant species. Tissue culture technology provides an ideal way for large-scale propagation and the reintroduction of the plants in its natural habitats [25,26]. In vitro propagation increases the efficiency and scales up plant production . Moreover, plant cell and tissue culture, as well as genetic engineering may be an alternative to the conventional method for the improvement of medicinal plants . The in vitro cultures could be preserved overtime and multiplied as and when required . Tissue culture also facilitates the exchange of germplasm within and across the countries .
There are several literatures available on in vitro propagation of Tinospora cordifolia (Table 2). In most of the work, nodal explants have been used in MS basal media  with various combination and concentration of plant growth hormones. In a recent experiment, development of multiple shoots in high frequency was achieved in nodal explant culture of Tinospora cordifolia . MS basal medium was used throughout this investigation with different combinations and concentrations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP), Kinetin and Thidiazuron (TDZ).Combination of BAP (2mg/l), Kinetin (4mg/l) and TDZ (0.20mg/l) in MS medium gave a maximum average of 10.29 numbers of shoots per explant within 30 days of inoculation. Root initiation was noticed after 5-6 days in half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (2mg/l) and it became profuse after 5 weeks. The rooted plantlets were transplanted ex vitro and rose in pots under green house conditions for one month followed by their field transfer. Earlier, a micropropagation protocol was developed using Tinospora cordifolia collected from North East India . MS basal medium was used throughout this experiment with different combination and concentrations of BAP, Kinetin and IAA.
Thidiazuron, BAP, Kinetin, IAA
Axillary bud and cotyledonary node
In vitro regeneration
nodal segments, leaf and inter-node
In vitro berberine production
Linsmaier and Skoog's
In vitro berberine production
Leaf, petiole and stem derived calli
NAA, Kinetin, BA
In vitro berberine production
Hairy root culture
Table 2: In vitro propagation of Tinospora cordifolia.
A protocol of micropropagation of Tinospora cordifolia was reported where various explants (shoot tip, axillary bud and cotyledonary node) were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth hormone . In this work, kinetin at 3.0 mg/l proved to be the best for shoot induction. Axillary bud and cotyledonary node explants showed good response when compared with shoot tip explants. Shoot elongation was found to be best in MS medium containing Kinetin (3.0mg/l) and Gibberellic Acid (0.5mg/l). Method was also optimized for controlling of phenol exudation in the culture using Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
In vitro multiplication of T. cordifolia via direct somatic embryogenesis using leaf explants of 15 days old plants on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.5mg/l) and glutamine (20mg/l) produced viable somatic embryos . Another protocol was developed for rapid clonal propagation of Tinospora through in vitro culture of mature nodal explants . Shoots were initiated on both MS medium and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 2.32 μm Kinetin. Of the two basal media tested, WPM was found to be superior to MS medium for the induction of multiple shoots. Among the cytokinins tested, Benzyl Adenine (BA) was more effective than Kinetin for axillary shoot proliferation. Nodal explants were reported as best explants for in vitro regeneration of Tinospora . In this study, a combination of 11.38μM Triacontanol [CH3(CH2)28CH2OH] and 13.94μM Kinetin was reported as best shoot inducing hormone combination. However, the influence of different auxins and their combination with cytokinin was not effective for shoot proliferation from nodal explants.
In Tinospora tissue culture, callus formation was observed from nodal segments, leaf and inter-node explants when planted on different combinations of hormones in MS Medium. However only nodal explants showed better shoot growth in MS medium containing kinetin (1.5 mg/l). Roots were developed in the medium containing 1.0mg/l BAP (1.0mg) and 2.5mg/l Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) .
Induction of callus was also obtained from leaf explants while culture in MS medium with 2,4-D alone or in combination with kinetin. However such callus failed to differentiate. Direct shoot induction was achieved from nodal explants culture in MS medium supplemented with kinetin (8μM) or in combination of kinetin and BAP (12 and 2μM respectively). The microshoots developed roots in medium fortified with NAA (8μM) .
Regeneration of multiple shoot was also obtained from nodal segments of Tinospora in MS basal medium supplemented with the combination of BA (0.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.2mg/l). Regenerated shoots were rooted on half strength MS basal medium containing both BA (1.0mg/l) and IAA (0.2mg/l). Rooted plantlets were transferred to pots containing soil for acclimatization, for a period of three weeks and were successfully established in soil . The shoot proliferation was also observed in MS medium containing BA and kinetin. While rooting of the microshoots was obtained in half strength MS medium supplemented with 0.4mg/l NAA .
Production of active principle through in vitro culture also draws attention of the scientific communities. Berberine, an isoquinolene alkaloid, together with its related analogs protoberberine and palmatine were detected in cell suspension cultures derived from leaf explants of Tinospora cordifolia. Berberine production was achieved in an optimized Linsmaier and Skoog's medium with specific pH, plant growth regulators and carbon sources. The yield of berberine in cell suspensions of Tinospora was reported as 5-14-folds higher than that of intact plant .
In an attempt to up gradation of the content of berberine in Tinospora, through biotechnological interventions, four week old leaf, petiole and stem derived calli of Tinospora was sub-cultured on to MS medium, supplemented with various growth regulators. MS medium with NAA (2 mg l-1) supplemented with BA or kinetin, each at 2 mg/l, was identified as the basal production medium for in vitro production of berberine, yielding 7.55 μg and 7.36 μg berberine respectively, per gram of calli. Calli produced from stem segments registered maximum amount of berberine compared to leaf and petiole derived callus cultures .
Protoberberine alkaloids were successfully isolated from the hairy root cultures of Tinospora cordifolia transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogens. Hairy roots of Tinospora cordifolia were induced from the shoot cultures by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes on a solid YMB medium. Roots were sub-cultured on liquid MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 3% sucrose without hormone under an optimized growth condition. This study revealed a higher amount of berberine (0.034%) production in the cultures treated with 500mg/L of L-Tyrosine as precursor, than the control .
It is to be mentioned that extensive chemical investigations have been made on Tinospora cordifolia and quite a good numbers of constituents have been isolated so far. The isolated constituents mainly belong to diverse classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides .
Tinospora cordifolia has also been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of various microbial diseases (Table 1). More particularly, the plant shows considerable antimicrobial activities against several disease-causing microorganisms. A study on the antibacterial activity of the aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of Tinospora cordifolia by disc diffusion method against a number of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria revealed its significant antibacterial activity. This finding justifies the uses of Tinospora cordifolia in traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases .
The methanol extracts of Tinospora cordifolia have been reported to have potential against microbial infections. Plant extracts showed activity against a number of bacterial species viz., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogene, and Serratia marcesenses [47,48]. In mice models, Tinospora extract has been reported to function in bacterial clearance and improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils .
Tinospora stem extract obtained through soxhlet extraction and separated by various chromatographic techniques using mixed solvent system, showed antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus albus . Hydro-alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia creeped on Azadirachta indica tree showed potential antimicrobial activity similar to Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial activity was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas sp, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, mucor sp and Pencillium . Antibacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia has also been reported on urinary tract pathogen . In a recent work, antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from stem of Tinospora cordifolia were analysed against multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients. Silver nanoparticles from Tinospora cordifolia possess very good antibacterial activity which makes them a potent source of antibacterial agent .
Tinospora cordifolia is emerging as a multipurpose plant with diverse medicinal attributes. Due to its enormous medicinal and phytochemical importance, this plant species has been highly exploited for commercial purposes. At present the species is facing rarity in natural habitats of India. The species deserve more evaluation for its therapeutic value using sophisticated tools and techniques. This review highlighted only a few aspects of investigation on this plant species. Biomedical study on the species and information based on metabolomics besides other biotechnological investigations including molecular characterization of diverse germplasm constitute the future scope of the review.
- UNESCO. Culture and Health, Orientation Texts - World Decade for Cultural Development 1988-1997. Document CLT/DEC/PRO-1996, Paris, France, 1996.
- AICEP. Summary report of the all India coordinated ethnobiological project (AICP), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, 1994.
- Anthropological survey of India 1994. People of India Project Report for 1994.
- Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Prakashan, Bombay. 1982.
- The Wealth of India: Raw Materials, Vol. X, CSIR, New Delhi. 1976.
- Nayampalli SS, Ainapure SS, Samant BD, Kudtarkar RG, Desai NK, Gupta KC. A comparative study of diuretic effects of Tinospora cordifolia and hydrochlorothiazide in rats and a preliminary phase I study in human volunteers. J Postgrad Med. 1988; 34: 233-236.
- Aiyer KN, Kolammal M. Pharmacognosy of Ayurvedic Drugs. 1st edn. Trivendrum: The Central Research Institute. 1983.
- Raghunathan K, Mittra R. Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. New Delhi. 1982.
- Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd edn. Dehra Dun, India. 1982.
- Ikram M, Khattak SG, Gilani SN. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 19: 185-192.
- Nayampalli SS, Desai NK, Ainapure SS. Allergic properties of Tinospora cordifolia ion animal models. Indian J. Pharm. 1986; 18: 250-252.
- Raj M, Gupta SS. The deposition of the secondary salts over the five pellets in rats was inhibited by the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia. J. Res. Ind. Med. 1966; 10: 113-116.
- Pendse VK, Dadhich AP, Mathur PN, Bal MS, Madam BR. Anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and some related pharmacological actions of the water extract of Neem, Giloe-A preliminary report. Indian J. Pharm. 1977; 9: 221-224.
- Asthana TG, Jain S, Mishra A, Vijaykanth MS. Evaluation of Antiseptic herbal drug combinations and their combination with Dapsone. Indian Drugs. 2001; 38: 82-86.
- Rao R. Flowering Plants of Travancore. Govt. Press. Trivendrum.1914
- The Useful Plants of India. CSIR, New Delhi. 1992.
- Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP, Gunasekaran G. Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 64: 53-57.
- Stanely P, Prince M, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 70: 9-15.
- Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP. Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytother Res. 2001; 15: 213-218.
- Chauhan K. Successful treatment of throat cancer with Ayurvedic drugs. Suchitra Ayurved. 1995; 47: 840-842.
- Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL, et al. Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 96: 445-449.
- Saha S, Ghosh S. Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles. Anc Sci Life. 2012; 31: 151-159.
- Mittal J, Sharma MM, Batra Amla. Tinospora cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant- A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies.2014; 2: 32-47.
- Upadhyay AK, Kumar K, Kumar A, Mishra HS. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) - validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010; 1: 112-121.
- Bhojwani SS, Arumugam N, Arora R, Upadhyay RP. In vitro conservation of some endangered plant species of India. Indian J. Plant Genet. Res. 1989; 2: 114-121.
- Lal N, Ahuja PS, Kukreja AK, Pandey B. Clonal propagation of Picrorhiza kurroa royle ex benth. by shoot tip culture. Plant Cell Rep. 1988; 7: 202-205.
- Chaturvedi HC, Sharma M. Successful exploitation of tissue culture for rapid clonal multiplication. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Plant Tissue Culture, ICAR, 1983; New Delhi.1983.
- Schieder O. Possibilities of Plant Cell Cultures for the improvement of medicinal plants. Pharm. Ztg. 1985; 130: 37: 2309.
- Chandel KPS, Sharma N. In vitro conservation of diversity in medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. Handa SS, Kaul MK editors. In: Supplements to cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants. National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi. 1996.
- Sehrawat AR, Uppal S, Chowdhury JB. Establishment of plantlets and evaluation of differentiated roots for alkaloids in Rauvolfia serpentina. J. Plant Biochem. Biotech. 2002; 11: 105-108.
- Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 1962; 15: 473-497.
- Choudhury SS, Handique PJ. TDZ enhances multiple shoot production from nodal explants of Tinospora cordifolia-a commercially important medicinal plant species of NE India, Res. Jr. Biotechnology, 2013; 8: 31-36.
- Handique PJ, Choudhury SS. Micropropagation of Tinospora cordifolia: A Prioritized Medicinal Plant Species of Commercial Importance of NE India, The IUP Jour of Genetics & Evolution. 2009; 2: 1-8.
- Mridula K, Rao AS, Rao MV. Ex-situ conservation of Tinospora cordifolia. Proceedings of National Research Seminar on Herbal Conservation, Cultivation, Marketing and Utilization with special emphasis on Chattisgarh - The Herbal State. 2001 Dec 13-14, Chattisgarh. 2001.
- Reddy MK, Rao AS, Rao MV. In vitro multiplication of Tinospora cordifolia Miers, an Ayruvedic medicinal plant via somatic embryogenesis. Abstract. 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for human welfare, 2003. Chiang Mai, Thailand. 2003.
- Raghu AV, Geetha SP, Martin G, Balachandran I, Ravindran PN. In vitro clonal propagation through mature nodes of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms: An Important Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant. In Vitro Cellular and Development Biology - Plant. 2006; 42: 584-588.
- Gururaj HB, Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA. Micropropagation of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F and Thoms- a multipurpose medicinal plant. Cur Sci. 2007; 92: 23-26.
- Singh Aditi, Sah SK, Pradhan A, Rajbahak S, Maharjan N. In vitro study of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (Manispermaceae). Botanica Orientalis - Journal of Plant Science. 2009; 6: 103-105.
- Bhalerao BM, Vishwarkarma KS, Maheshwari VL. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook.f.Thoms- plant tissue culture and comparative chemo-profiling study as function of different supporting trees. Indian J Nat Pro Res. 2013; 4: 380-386.
- Bhat TM, Singh M, Malik Tafazul. Micropropagation of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F. Thoms- A threatened medicinal plant. IAJPR. 2013; 3: 3636-3641.
- Khanapurkar RS, Paul NS, Desai DM, Raut MR, Gangawane AK. In vitro Propagation OF Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers ex Hook. F. Thoms, editors. J Bot Res 2012; 3: 17-20.
- Rao RB, Kumar VD, Naga AR, Jalaja N, Vaidyanath K, Rao MA. et al. Effect of growth regulators, carbon source and cell aggregate size on berberine production from cell cultures of Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Current Trend in Biotechnology and Pharmacy. 2008; 2: 269-276.
- Kalimuthu M, Sankar M A, Augustin A, Keshavachandran R, Nybe EV. Exploitation of in vitro cultures of Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Chittamrithu) for berberine production. Keshavachandran R, Nazeem P, Girija D, John P S, Peter K V. Editors. In: Recent trends in horticultural biotechnology, Vol. I and II. ICAE national symposium on biotechnological interventions for improvement of horticultural crops: issues and strategies, 2005 Jan 10-12 Vellanikkara, India, 2007: 409-414.
- Verma R, Juvekar AR, Gopalkrishnan R, Eapen S. Protoberberine alkoloids from the hairy root cultures of Tinospora cordifolia transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogens. Planta Med. 2006; 72 - S018.
- Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS Patro B, Ghosh AC. Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2003; 35: 83-91.
- Jeyachandran R, Xavier TF, Anand SP. Antibacterial activity of stem extracts of tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Hook. f & Thomson. Anc Sci Life. 2003; 23: 40-43.
- Narayanan AS, Raja SS, Ponmurugan K, Kandekar SC, Natarajaseenivasan K, Maripandi A, et al. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: A study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Benef Microbes. 2011; 2: 235-243.
- Tambekar DH, Khante BS, Chandak BR, Titare AS, Boralkar SS, Aghadte SN. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from Melghat forest in India. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6: 228-232.
- Thatte UM, Kulkarni MR, Dahanukar SA. Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by Tinospora cordifolia. J Postgrad Med. 1992; 38: 13-15.
- Verma DR, Kakkar A. Antibacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia, Journal of Global Pharma Technology. 2011; 3: 08-12.
- Nagaprashanthi Ch, Rafi khan P, Gopi chand K, Aleemuddin MA, Rajiya Begum G. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Tinospora cordifolia and its Phytochemical screening. Int J PharmTech Res. 2012; 4: 1004-1008.
- Shanti V, Nelson R. Antibacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd). Thoms on urinary tract pathogen. Hook F, editor. Int jour current microbiology and applied science. 2013; 2: 190-194.
- Singh K, Panghal M, Kadyan S, Chaudhary U, Yadav JP. Antibacterial Activity of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Tinospora cordifolia against Multi Drug Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients. Nanomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 5: 1-6.