Evaluation of the Proximate and Sensory Properties of Spread Produced from Cashew Nut and Groundnut Blend

Research Article

Austin J Nutri Food Sci. 2014;2(6): 1031.

# Evaluation of the Proximate and Sensory Properties of Spread Produced from Cashew Nut and Groundnut Blend

Nwosu JN*, Iwouno JO, Uzoukwu AE, Anyanwu CO and Osuchukwu OA

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: :Nwosu JN, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Oi, Imo State, Nigeria

Received: March 19, 2014; Accepted: May 20, 2014; Published: May 22, 2014

## Abstract

Spread was produced from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale .L) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) seed slurries. The proximate composition was carried out on both the slurry and the product while sensory properties were carried out on the product. From the results obtained, it was observed that the proximate composition both in slurry and the product (spread),shows that 100% of cashew nut had higher protein of (34.00) and (29.82), respectively than other samples and 100% of groundnut had the highest moisture content of (6.23) and (6.33), respectively. Meanwhile sample H 10% cashew nut and 90% groundnut had the lowest crude fiber content of 1.15 and 1.21 respectively amongst the samples. From the sensory evaluation results, it was observed that sample C 90% cashew nut and 10% groundnut had better flavor than all the other samples as shown in Table 3 (7.50). Also sample a 100% cashew nut slurry had the best texture with the value of (7.60) when compared with the control sample (8.70). Apart from the control sample which was significantly (p≤0.05) different from all the samples, samples A, C, E, F, G (100% of cashew nut, 90% of cashew nut and 10% of groundnut, 70% of cashew nut and 30% of groundnut, 60% of cashew nut and 40% of groundnut, 50% of cashew nut and 50% of groundnut) respectively had no significant (p≥0.05) difference amongst each other and were moderately and closely followed the control sample. None of the samples were rejected out rightly and as such all the products were acceptable. From these results, it could be said that cashew nut and groundnut blends had almost the same features and properties compared with the peanut butter (control) sold in markets.

Keywords: Slurry; Spread; Proximate composition; Sensory properties

## Introduction

The cashew (Anacardium occidentale l.) belongs to the genus Anacardium, a member of the family of Anacardaceac. Cashew trees are known by different names all over the world, for example, among the Portuguese it is called “caju”, in Madagascar “mabibo” and in French as “Pomme-caju”, while in Nigeria, cashew trees are known among the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa tribes as “Kashuu”, “Caju and “Kadinnia” respectively.

Being a tropical plant, many parts of the cashew tree are utilized by man in various forms both as food and as non-food products. The parts used as foods are the cashew apple and the cashew nuts. The cashew when fully ripe may be eaten raw, preserved as jams or the juice made into a beverage or fermented into wine [1]. In the southern region of “Mtwara” Tanzania, the cashew apples (bibo in Swahili) are dried, kept and later reconstituted with water and fermented, then distilled to make strong liquor known as “gongo” [2]. On the other hand, cashew nut is a popular snack and its rich flavor means that it is often eaten roasted, on its own, lightly salted or sugared, or covered in chocolate [3]. In Mozambique, “bolo polana” is a cake prepared using powdered cashew nuts and mashed potatoes as the main ingredients which are also popular in South Africa [2]. It could be used in confectionary and bakery products.

According to [4], cashew bark extract has good in–vitro antibacterial activity against E. coli and pseudomonas [5]. Reported that cashew fruits have antibacterial activity against the gram negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori which causes stomach ulcer. Because of its high content of vitamin C and mineral salts, cashew fruit is used as a catalyst in the skin and to remineralize the skin [4]. Cashews are a good source of anti–oxidants especially alkyl phenols [6].

Nutritionally, the cashew apple is rich in nutrients and contains five times more vitamin C than an orange [7]. On the other hand, one hundred grams of cashew nuts contains; 30.19% of carbohydrate, 43.85% of fat, 18.22% of protein, 5.2% of water, 1.06mg (0.00106%) of Niacin, 0.86mg (0.00086%) of pantothenic acid, 37mg (0.037%) of calcium, 593mg (0.593%) of phosphorus, 660mg (0.660%) of potassium and 292mg (0.292%) of magnesium. The fats and oil in cashew nuts are 54% of monounsaturated fats, 18% polyunsaturated fats and 16% saturated fat [6].

There are lot of problems associated with cashew processing and its maximum utilization as food. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile making it unsuitable for transportation [8]. The nut is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid, a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better known allergenic oil urushiol which is also a toxin found in related poison [9]. Cashew apples have a stringent taste due to the waxy layer on the skin that causes tongue and throat irritation after eating those [7]. The hypothesis of this study was to evaluate the proximate and sensory qualities of spread produced from cashew nuts and groundnuts in comparison with that already in existence in the market.