Portae Inferi Non Praevalebunt

Short Communication

Austin Anthropol. 2018; 2(1): 1002.

Portae Inferi Non Praevalebunt

Zanella A*

Department of TESAF, University of Padua, Italy

*Corresponding author: Augusto Zanella, Department of TESAF, University of Padua, Viale Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy

Received: May 01, 2018; Accepted: May 30, 2018; Published: June 06, 2018


To believe that a latent and very discrete process continuously improves the quality of life all around is called “to have a positive attitude”. However, there is enough matter all-around for generating some stress and misunderstanding. We need air-conditioners and the more the climate is warming, the faster we will be in the hell. Worrisome data are available about biodiversity. Our earliest ancestor Sahelanthropus tchadensis was living about 7 million years ago. Compared to other species, we are relatively young.

A site characterized by low biodiversity may be incompatible with a species (Homo sapiens) born in a very biodiverse space-time. Are we sure that system Earth will be sensible to our will and respond to our influence keeping us in its evolving germination forever? As every species in an expansion phase, humans are experiencing a collective, optimistic, unconscious prospect of immortality. On this point, why do not ask our peers for advice and consider a worldwide organized riposte for:

a) Have less impacting actions on the climate, or at least try to stem those too impacting in progress;

b) Better use the natural and human resources we own, avoiding excessive losses of time and money;

c) Planning the continuity of the humankind, following common hopeful rules. Easier to say than to do, of course.

Keywords: Biodiversity; Co-evolution; Evolution; Global change; Humankind; Humusica; Mars; Warming climate

Short Communication

For the first time in our life, we are walking into the future with some hesitation. “This sentiment is just prevailing at your age”, suggested my wife. Side by side for more than 30 years, we believed that a subjacent unknown process continuously and automatically improves the quality of life all around (our ancestors had harsher lives that is). Coming from an Alpine region, I never feel cold. Born at the seaside, my wife likes fair weathers. Now that the climate is growing warmer, I feel uneasy, fancying for fresh air in summer. She effortlessly supports hot days, but conditioned air may cause allergic reactions in her body. We feel morally guilty to live in climatized rooms at work. The use of air-conditioners consumes energy and increases the external air temperature. Worse: the more the climate is warming, the more we will apply air-conditioners and the faster we will be in the hell [1]. These minor inconveniences may be enough matter for generating stress.

In addition, worrisome data are available about biodiversity. Among very numerous scientific papers [2-10].

What is biodiversity? On this topic too, there is a delicate divergence of sentiments.

Many people like exotic plants and animals. For example, in our garden, we have two exotic trees (Pinus sylvestris, and Cercissiliquastrum), and many bushes as Euonymus japonicus, Syringa vulgaris, Ceanothus tyrsiflorus, Buddleia davidii, Cercissiliquastrum, Phyllostachis humilis, Hibiscus syriacus and Campsis radicans. All these plants were there when we bought the house. None of these plants is naturally born there. They compose a very common human-made garden. I purposely avoid mowing the lawn, which becomes a miscellaneous meadow (Poatrivialis, Dactilisglomerata, Loliumperenne, Trisetumflavescens) with a seasonal dominance of invasive herbs like Chelidoniummajus, Taraxacumofficinale, or even trees plantlets (Acer pseudoplatanus, Ailantusaltissima); among these plants my wife sets campanula clumps, winter hyacinths, violets, primroses, sometimes even tulips or iris. Ecologically speaking, our garden is effectively a disaster. Pinus sylvestris should be in cold northern forests, Cercissiliquastrum in southern Mediterranean areas. Our garden shrubs are sold all over the world and constitute a growing army of invasive species. Artificially diffused trees, shrubs and grasses cheerfully overstep the artificial boundaries that humans build around their properties and assault the whole planet, standardizing the urban green areas everywhere.

I introduced Lombricusterrestris, an anecic earthworms (there were none) that my friend Bernard caught in his garden and brought me. However, the biodiversity if my garden is not the one of a natural ecosystem [11].

At the beginning, our planet was a nude ball of rock in the fire, in a very harsh environment (climate and air), unsupportable for the present day living organisms. Then, slowly, in nearly 4 billion years, planet Earth became a full of life ecosystem. The process that generated all the existing biodiversity occurs even at present days and does not need any human intervention. It corresponds to a cosmic journey, a consequence of the inexorable expansion of the universe [12], which allows a localized decreasing entropy, with the building of complex regular structures (molecules, macromolecules, tissues, organs, organisms, ecosystems…) that characterizes the living systems. On planet Earth, each local arrangement of species forms a functional construction, because the species interact and become inter depending. The more the system evolves, the more it becomes biodiverse, enlarging and modifying the volume in which it develops [13]. Our earliest ancestor Sahelanthropus tchadensis was living about 7 million years ago; Homo sapiens (humans, as we are today) appeared from this same line about 200,000 years ago [14]. Compared to other species, we are relatively young. All the species of common gardens were on Earth long before Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

A site characterized by low biodiversity may be incompatible with a species (Homo sapiens) born in a very biodiverse habitat. Homo sapiens is a recent species generated in a highly biodiverse planet Earth (melting pot). This biodiversity may inhabit Homo sapiens. Undoubtedly, the original Earth ecosystem contained Homo sapiens as a gear in a functional system, as a piece of a tridimensional puzzle [15-17]. And this biodiverse structure was in living equilibrium with the external environment (our Milky galaxy, the further space) that includes the solar system and its planets [18,19]. The soil ecosystem evolved, losing part of its original genetic edifices but preserving what was still necessary for continuing to exist as a whole equilibrated ecosystem [20-25]. Let us imagine that Homo sapiens could continue to behave for diminishing the planet biodiversity [26]; let’s suppose that planet Earth could maintain its equilibrium even in a less biodiverse condition. Are we sure that Homo sapiens could remain alive/ functional in a pauperized planet ecosystem? The microorganisms in which we are bathing, and all the other visible living beings, may continue to follow an unknown general principle that instead seems to want an increasing biodiversity for planet Erath. Are we sure that system Earth will be more responding to our influence and keep us in its evolving germination forever? At the moment, Earth system seems to follow the human will, and supports an increasing Homo sapiens’ population (https://www.unfpa.org/world-population-trends). How long will be this trend sustainable?

In a movie (The Martian, directed by Ridley Scott), Matt Damon grew potatoes on Mars, as in a novel [27]. Is to grow potatoes on Mars possible? Only if we are able to artificially reproduce the habitat that naturally exists on planet Earth around a potatoes plant. Each organism follows an inherited cycle of life [What is soil? In [28- 31] and paradoxically has to die for continuing to stay alive, single cells continuing to die even in healthy bodies (What is apoptosis? In [32]. A plant can produce enough organic matter for feeding even other living beings [33-36]. Life starts as a low biodiverse soil, called “primordial soup” or prebiotic soup” [37-39], and becomes a very interconnected, hyper-biodiverse living ecosystem [7,9,13, 40-47]. But we would like to grow potatoes now and fast on a nude earth. We do not need all the past natural history of planet Earth for growing potatoes on Mars, do we? Homo sapiens can build a greenhouse for a starting a functional ecosystem on Mars, does he? [30].

None knows how many biodiversity planet Earth can lose before the process could negatively influence the existence of Homo sapiens. There should be a limit. We are not able to artificially build all the molecules we need for being in good health, are we?

Investigating about 3000 years of the Chines multi-ethnic history, [48] concludes that a) the weaker a society is, the less its members have choices about how to live, and b) the wealthier a society becomes, the higher chance that members of that society develop a collective personality. However, during the process of modernization of a multi-ethnic human community, through the spirit of unity and mutual assistance among all ethnic groups, prosperity tends to increase and converge. And the society may achieve the purpose of universal welfare, without losing its multi-ethnic constitution.

How many humans can be living on a “warmer planet Earth” in 2100? Why not to consider the possibility to organize a referendum and clarify everything with our peers before is too late?

1) During a tremendous well-known manifestation that could be seen all over the world (Olympic games?);

2) Using a mean of communication simple and well diffused among humans all over the globe (cell-phone?);

3) Plan a referendum on a crucial question concerning the biological future of our species, and communicate the score as it was humankind will? Yes, No, A = abstention answers;

In fact, we should (Figure 1):

Citation: Zanella A. Portae Inferi Non Praevalebunt. Austin Anthropol. 2018; 2(1): 1002.