Cephalic Index of Adult Igbo s in Imo State, Nigeria

Research Article

Austin Anthropol. 2021; 5(1): 1023.

Cephalic Index of Adult Igbo’s in Imo State, Nigeria

Ifunanya DMD* and Ukoha UU

Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Okofia, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Dike Martha Dora Ifunanya, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Okofia, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria

Received: June 07, 2021; Accepted: July 06, 2021; Published: July 13, 2021


Cephalic index is of great importance to anatomists, anthropologists and even to forensic scientists, in the determination of head shapes and for medicolegal cases. Cranial and post cranial measurements have typically been used to describe individuals and to compare groups. This study aims at obtaining the Cranial indices of adults Igbos in Imo state, which will help build the forensic database and in identification of age, gender, racial differences in recent and ancient humans, and in the diagnoses of certain developmental disorders of the skull, such as Craniosynostosis, Hydrocephalus, and Postural deformation. Also to correlate the results of males with that of females. One thousand, One hundred and fifty eight (1158) subjects comprising of five hundred and seventy nine (579) males and females respectively, ages 18-52 years. The measurements were done manually with the use of transparent graded ruler, measuring tapes, gliding and sliding calipers or flexible tapes. The following parameters were measured; cranial length, cranial breadth, since Cephalic Index=Cranial breadth/cranial length x 100. The mean cranial length and breadth were 172±92.89 and 160.46±27.65 respectively. The result for males Cranial Length (CL), Cranial Breadth (CB), were respectively 173.93±18.75, 161.05±17.21. The result for females Cranial Length (CL), Cranial Breadth (CB), were respectively; 171.76±30.06, 159.88±35.11. These results were used to calculate the various Cephalic Index; mean Cephalic Index (CI) was 97.26±21.55. The males Cephalic Index (CI) was100.23±26.23, and female Cephalic Index (CI) was 94.29±14.94, Analysis of the results was done using independent t-test and Pearson bivariate correlation. These tests were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25). Microsoft office excel was also used during data processing. Analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the mean values of females and males. The result from this study shows that Adults in Imo state are Brachycephalic. This study is a great contribution to the forensic, anthropology, anatomical and medical database.

Keywords: Cephalic index; Brachycephalic; Craniosynostosis; Hydrocephalus


Cranial and postcranial measurements have typically been used to describe individuals and to compare groups. Before 1960, comparisons were usually based on single measurements evaluated independently or on indices that combined two dimensions as an indicator of shape. The recent availability of computers has facilitated the use of multivariate statistics and encouraged the development of increasingly sophisticated research designs [1]. Population variation in skeletal morphology is the result of genetic and environmental differences among groups. Since heritability studies have demonstrated that genes greatly influence cranial shape, it is generally assumed that groups with similar craniofacial morphology are more closely related than groups that display greater differences in cranial form. Variations of the human face are so extensive and obvious that one can distinguish even identical twins with relative ease. The reason for and substance of these variations and differences are more difficult to define, unless they are carefully studied and measured. It is well established that anthropometric parameters have indicated significant differences existing between the sexes, races and cranial variation at worldwide, regional, ethnic, or intragroup levels [2]. This craniometrical data can be used to address questions of culturalhistorical relationships, identification of ancestry, which is important in both forensic and bioarchealogical context [3]. Swedish professor of anatomy Anders Retzius (1796-1860) first used the cephalic index in physical anthropology to classify ancient human remains found in Europe, he classified brains into three main categorie [3]; Dolichocephalic, Mesocephalic, and Brachycephalic. This study was carried out to document and provide a baseline data of craniofacial measurements and Indices, which could be of importance in clinical practice, forensic, and anthropological data [4].

Materials and Methods

A total number of 1158 subjects, which comprised of 559 males and 559 females with ages ranging from 18-52 years. Participants were indigenes of Imo state whose parents and grandparents were from Imo state. Participants were seen in schools, local government areas, bars, hotels, churches; hospitals etc. participants had no facial or cranial deformities or any form of plastic or reconstructive surgery. The parameters were measured with the help of transparent graded rulers, gliding/sliding calipers or flexible tapes. All measurements were taken while the subjects were seated in a relaxed condition and has his head in an anatomical position. The Data gotten was subjected to statistical analysis.

• Head length was measured to the nearest millimeters (mm) using gliding, sliding caliper or flexible tape with subject seated and head positioned in an upright direction. The head length was measured from the two extreme ends of the sagital axis of the head region using the Anatomical Standard Record of Position such as Frankfurt Plane. Head length is the maximum point on the sagital axis of the skull as shown in Figure 1.