Monoclonal Antibody and Blood Plasma ABO Blood Group Based Therapy Against COVID-19

Review Article

Austin Hematol. 2022; 7(1): 1044.

Monoclonal Antibody and Blood Plasma ABO Blood Group Based Therapy Against COVID-19

Shimuye Kalayu Yirga*, Minhui Lin and Jianda Hu

Fujian Institute of Hematology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Hematology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fujian, China

*Corresponding author: Shimuye Kalayu Yirga, Fujian Institute of Hematology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Hematology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, 29 Xinquan Road P.O.BOX 350001 Fuzhou, Fujian, China

Received: December 29, 2021; Accepted: March 03, 2022; Published: March 10, 2022


In new decade new coronavirus emerged. By August 2020, there is no accepted antiviral drug or antibody against COVID-19. COVID-19 (SARSCoV- 2) has nucleic acid sequence similarity 96% with bat coronavirus, 79.6% SARS-CoV-1. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 have common human hostcell ACE2 receptor. This similarity helps for effective vaccine and antibody development. At Wuhan, China, convalescent plasma therapy achieved 70% recovery results. ABO blood group susceptibility study revealed O blood group were very low risk whereas A were at high risk against COVID-19. ABO natural antibodies have positive effect to slowdown COVID-19 in less hygienic environment (less developed) regions. Isolation of specific antibody from EBV transformed B-lymphocyte recovered patients is encouraged. Production of potent neutralizing antibody and vaccine is required. We identified the sensitive immunogenic amino acid segment (318-510) in S1-protein domain that contains important and essential amino acids including cysteine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which associated with ACE2 expression.

Keywords: Monoclonal antibody; COVID-19; Spiked protein; ACE2; ABO blood group


In the end of 2019, early of 2020 unknown pneumonia caused very contagious pathogen was reported at Wuhan City, Hubei province, China. Novel corona virus in respiratory specimens was detected by next generation sequencing or real-time RT-PCR methods [1]. Chinese scientist released the complete sequenced of the novel corona virus (WH-Human_1) on January 10, 2020 and it is freely online available in the Gene Bank [2]. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) named the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Later on, the World Health Organization (WHO) was official named the novel coronavirus as COVID-19. There are four type of corona virus: a-coronavirus (a-COV), β-coronavirus (β-COV), d-coronavirus (d-COV) and γ-coronavirus (γ-COV). This novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is belonging to β-coronavirus, which is the most cosmopolitan virus in nature. Coronavirus is an RNA virus with single strand and about 80-120 nm in diameter [3]. Before the end of 2019, there were 6 known coronavirus infect human and cause respiratory diseases. Of those six corona virus 229E, OC43, NL63, HKU, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV; SARS-Co-V-2 (COVID-19) became the seventh human corona virus and globally pandemic in 2020 [4]. The genomic sequence analysis of the novel corona virus revealed that the genomic sequence similarity shared with bat SARS coronavirus (SARSr-CoV-RaTG13) 96% [5] and SARS-CoV-1 (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Bat may be an important natural reservoir of the virus. Moreover, Phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling revealed that COVID-19 had a similar receptorbinding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV-1, despite amino acid variation at some key residues [6,7]. The infectivity and transmission rate of COVID-19 is higher than that of SARS and MRES coronavirus indeed its mortality rate is unknown yet [8].

Human beings are confronting a pandemic by COVID-19, due to the reason that the virus is new pathogen. So far, there are no licensed vaccines or antibodies. Convalescence serum based therapy from fully recovered COVID-19 patient is one of the best options for immediate therapy. In China Wuhan, the convalescent serum able to recovered 70% against COVID-19 patients. A scientific study from the previous outbreak of SARS-COV-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot neutralization assay results confirmed that the anti-SARS antibodies taken from the convalescent serum enabled neutralized the virus [9]. The genomic sequence result indicated that this new virus (SARS-COV-2) shared the same receptors with the previous SARS-COV-1) virus [6]. Thus identify the receptor cells and produce vaccine and monoclonal antibody against COVID-19 is important. In recent years, technology of monoclonal antibody become a powerful tool in diagnostic and therapeutic of various human Cancer and virus including Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and more recently novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2) [10,11]. The relationship between the ABO Blood group and the COVID-19 susceptibility was reported [12]. This has relationship with the antibody found in plasma, which indicated that the natural antibody found in the blood plasma could inhibit the interaction of the virus to its host receptor cell entry gate [13]. In this article, we suggests that convalescent serum from fully recovered COVID-19 patients as an immediate therapy can aligned with ABO blood group COVID-19 non-susceptible ( lower risk) individuals. Most importantly, identify the immunogenic parts of the new pathogen (COVID-19) would lead to produce effective monoclonal antibody and vaccine.

COVID-19 as Global Pandemic

In the new decade, new coronavirus become a big challenge to our world. In 21st century COVID-19 come to be one the most contagious and world threat coronavirus pathogens [14]. In the last month of 2019, COVID-19 case was reported from China, Wuhan. Wuhan is the most populous city in central China with a population exceeding 11 million [15]. Later on, COVID-19 confirmed cases increased more than 10 times cases SARSCoV-1 and MERS. COVID-19 moved very fast from endemic to epidemic finally World Health Organization (WHO) declared march 11, 2020 COVID-19 as pandemic to the world [16]. On July 26, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic cases distributed to almost all over the countries globally. In worldwide, based on WHO July 2020 report over 15 million peoples were infected by COVID-19. It is increasing very fast every day and over 600 thousands of lives are lost. In China, Wuhan where the epicenter of the COVID-19 was lockdown for about 76 days. In China, the COVID-19 cases showed decreasing significantly, with the high recovery rate although there is no licensed antiviral drug or vaccine consistently applied. This time it is necessary the entire world work together and defeat COVID-19 pandemic. Since July 2020, the COVID-19 is increased in alarming rates. Large number of cases was reported from Europeans, North Americans and Africana countries. This time, low-income countries mainly African and South Asian need to get ready and save lives by slow down the circulation of the virus. To Combat COVID-19 drastic action should be taken, there is no time to waste.