Herbs as Nephroprotective Agent: An Over View with Reference to Unani System of Medicine

Short Communication

Austin Renal Dis. 2016; 1(1): 1001.

Herbs as Nephroprotective Agent: An Over View with Reference to Unani System of Medicine

Zaid Ahmad Q*

Department of Saidla, Faculty of Unani Medicine, UP, India

*Corresponding author: Zaid Ahmad Q, Department of Saidla, Faculty of Unani Medicine, UP, India

Received: August 16, 2016; Accepted: August 19, 2016; Published: August 22, 2016

Short Communication

Nephroprotection has been resonating for quite some times about decades but unfortunately without any sound repercussion and major break through either in its appreciation or in the field of drug development befitting with its scope in the entirety. Theory and practice of protection and tonicity actually originated from and rooted in the traditional systems of medicine. There elaboration requires therefore an understanding of the context and the philosophical contour they are imbibed with. Drugs attributed to possess tonic or protective effect such as hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and renoprotective etc. have been largely used for their face value without knowing their actual pharmacological profile and potential therapeutic value.

Inability of Modern medicine to deliver drugs for a number of disorders actually lured the practitioner to grab such a product alleged to be useful in a disease for which they do not have an option of management. This phenomenon increased the popularity such drug on one hand but narrowed down their wide therapeutic potential and gave way for injudicious use on the other. Probably that is the reason that such drugs are a bit away from achieving the epitome of a drug with specific action. Unani System of Medicine has elaborate discussion of such drugs including that of nephroprotective drugs and combinations.

The concept of protection and tonicity of an organ have specific annotation that can only be understood through the philosophy of Unani System of Medicine. This will help understand the significance of theory and its practical application and also the nature and mechanism of drug action. Evidences are accumulating to demonstrate that the drug to be described useful in various renal disorder because of their nephrotonic and nephroprotective as described in Unani or other traditional medicines have even more wide and diverse therapeutic uses than that depicted by Modern Medicine practitioners and can be important source of managing many renal diseases and their complications, of course giving a ray of hope to the millions of patients struggling to reverse or at least slowdown the progression of their disease. However, there is equally wide scope of the scientific evaluation of nephroprotective drugs to minutely characterized them and make them specific and user friendly. Use of recent technique and appropriate methodology of research will be of great utility in determining the actual therapeutic value of such drugs and giving them a scientific sanctity.

Renoprotection by view point of Unani Medicine comprises of the protection of the various faculties the kidneys are imbibed with, to maintain its functioning. In case of mild degree of kidney disorder the drugs categorized to be kidney tonics are sufficient enough to deal with the situation to bring the normalcy. However, when gross impairment in kidney function or it matrix takes place anyhow, because of the high toxic effect of a substance or because one of the natural faculties is undermined owing to some local or systemic disease of the body, then the drugs having other pharmacological actions along with the tonic one, are used. Drugs ascribed to possess diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cathartic etc along with tonic effect are frequently used with an aim to treat the pathology and invigorate the kidney to bounce back to its normal state to perform its assigned function. Further, in case of progression of kidney diseases some other drugs are included in the regimen along with the drugs mentioned above, to directly ameliorate the compromised condition by promoting the healing of injured tissue, removal of toxins and reducing the pressure of work on kidney by diverting the wastes to some other system or organs of the body [1,2].

However, despite recognition of drug induced nephrotoxicity and concerted scientific efforts directed into developing therapeutic or prophylactic agents to induce protection against chemically and drug induced nephrotoxicity, conventional chemotherapeutic options available to either treat or prevent its development, are still limited. In the absence of reliable and effective modern nephroprotective drugs and available traditional medicines employed for the disease treatment, concerted efforts are currently channeled towards exploring complementary or measure to treat or prevent the disease.

A number of ethnomedicinal plants from traditional system of medicine viz Ayurveda and Unani, which are acclaimed by the Ayurvedic and Unani physicians to have nephroprotective properties and commonly being used to treat the various renal disorder have extensively investigated for their nephroprotective effect which showed significant results in various studies [3]. These findings have been suggested that the Ethnomedicinal plants can be used to help forestall the need for dialysis by treating the cause and effect of renal failure, as well as to slow the progression of disease by reducing the many adverse effect of dialysis [4]. Though there are few chemical agents to treat acute renal failure. Studies reveal that synthetic nephroprotective agents have adverse effect besides reduce nephrotoxicity, various environmental toxicant and clinically useful drugs, acetaminophen and gentamicin, can cause severe organ toxicities through the metabolic activation to highly reactive free radical [5]. Right from its beginning, the documentation of traditional knowledge, especially medicinal uses of plants, has provided many important drugs of modern day. Several herbal drugs act as good non-specific cytoprotective. In view of this background, it is thought worthwhile to evaluate the indigenous plants which could be useful as adjuvant as nephroprotective. This helps to decrease the potential nephrotoxicity of drugs like gentamicin, cisplatin, cyclosporine, Carbon tetrachloride, etc [6]. Further it was conceptualized that such native plants would be useful, at least as adjuvant in the treatment of different kind of degenerative disease of kidney [7] such type of observations also recorded.

Furthermore in some phytochemical studies it was observed that medicinal plants are also a source for a wide variety of natural antioxidants which are used for the treatment of diseases throughout the world [8]. Some of these properties are antimicrobial [9], anti-cancer [10], anti-diabetic [11], anti-atherosclerosis [12], immunomodulatory [13] and even reno-protection [14] or hepatoprotective effects.

These reports are although of preliminary nature but showing great potential of Unani Medicine to deliver promising agents that can be used to treat the kidney diseases or at least, preserve its function and slow its progression. Therefore, the study of Unani diuretics, tonics and nephroprotective drugs gain importance as one of the means of characterizing and identifying a better group of drugs that can be used as actual nephroprotective agent, a few of them have been investigated for nephroprotective, diuretic and other associated effects. These studies presented in tabulated form, have demonstrated great potential of Unani medicine to provide nephroprotective drugs (Table 1).

Citation: Mehta V, Lee F, Patel M and Katsigiorgis G. Case Report: Bilateral Anterior Glenohumeral Dislocations. Austin Orthop. 2016; 1(1): 1001.