Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Short Communication

Austin J Autism & Relat Disabil. 2022; 8(1): 1058.

Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Binti Ibrahim NA*

81200 Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia

*Corresponding author:Nur Aifiah Binti Ibrahim, 81200 Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia; Tel: 014-2725013; Email: [email protected]

Received: March 15, 2022; Accepted: April 07, 2022; Published: April 14, 2022

Short Communication

NIMH [1] had described autism to be the foremost notable childhood developmental disorder. Ozonoff et al. [2] had stated a Greek word called autos as being self. According to Brasic [3], Landa [4], and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) [5], ASD had been recognised in early childhood and characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, such as in communication, and repetitive behaviours, interests, and activities (RRBs). In 1943, Ozonoff et al. [2] had referred Leo Kanner at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore had reported autism as a specific set of behaviors contributing to different spectrums. Ozonoff et al. [2] had also found that he had diagnosed 11 children who had less interest in people, held on to their daily routines, and had shown unusual movements. They faced difficulties in learning and interacting with other people.

Even a child who progressed with good academic scores and was outspoken had autistic characteristics. Hence, Ozonoff et al. [2] had coined the term high-functioning individuals for their intellectual abilities. Thus, the word autism is not defined since there are various features of autism. Based on Ozonoff et al. [2], the most recent recognition of autism is the word autism spectrum disorder.

CDC [6] had mentioned developmental history and behavior to look at a diagnosis of ASD. According to CDC [6], ASD is detectable at 18 months or younger. Based on CDC [6] and Lord et al. [7], at the age of two, diagnosis of ASD is reliable if done by an experienced professional. CDC [6] then mentioned that children did not get the finalized result until a much older age. Hence, CDC [6] had stated that there were delays for children with ASD to receive early intervention to treat themselves.

CDC [6] had listed down a variety of the primary of the early detection of ASD as follows:

• Avoidance of eye contact

• Avoidance of other children and caretakers

• Limited amount of speech and delivery

• Uninterested in changes of daily routine

Further, CDC [6] had added further complications, such as attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety or depression, or conduct disorder. NIMH [1] had further discovered that ASD also includes a variety of medical autism diagnoses which vary in severity of the individual symptoms. NIMH [1] had also referred to autistic disorder as having classical autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD).

Developmental milestones measure the children’s skills at a specific age [6]. According to CDC [6], they cannot tell when each child had developed their skills at a different pace. CDC [6] had added that developmental health is crucial for every child. The ongoing support by the health professionals and caretakers for early possible developmental delay or disability assisted them to become more optimistic and interested in discovering the world [6].

The alternative way to be taken is the developmental screening in which the child will have to answer a quick and brief test [6]. CDC [6] had found that parents know best and should provide responses to a questionnaire concerning their children. Thus, CDC [6] had found developmental screening to be more formal and done less often than developmental monitoring. Based on CDC [6], the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) had recommended developmental and behavioral screening for all children during the pediatric wellchild visit at nine, 18, or 30 months old. Then, AAP had mentioned children at the age of 18 months, 24 months, or additional screening for a child at high risk of ASD due to family history and behaviours sometimes associated with ASD emerged. Sometimes health experts had attempted to possess additional screening for pre-term births, low birth weight, and environmental risk, such as toxicity [6]. If a toddler has preexisting and prolonged health problems or a diagnosed condition, CDC [6] had described the child should have developmental monitoring and screening in all areas of development.

Hence, CDC [6] and Hyman et al. [8] had mentioned children with the foremost recent treatments tend to reduce symptoms that deteriorate with their routines and quality of life. According to CDC [6] and Hyman et al. [8], different individuals had their unique ways of being diagnosed with ASD. CDC (2020) had also mentioned the various approaches in therapy for autistic children, like behavioural, developmental, educational, social-relational, pharmacological, psychological, complementary, and alternative.

According to CDC [6], behavioural therapy had to do with changing mannerisms during and after. CDC [6] had mentioned behavioural analysis as the most effective one, also referred to as Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA). CDC [6] had found Discrete Trial Training (DTT) and Pivotal Response Training (PRT) as the two teaching methods for autistic children. The DTT is more about appreciating the children’s efforts in completing their assignments by giving them rewards [6]. CDC [6] had also discovered PRT is a sort of improvement for various skills, such as communication, self-care, and managing themselves.

CDC [6] had combined both the developmental and behavioural therapies. However, CDC [6] had addressed that developmental is more on language and speech therapy and occupational therapy. Speech and language therapy helps in improving their understanding and use of speech and language [6]. CDC [6] had found that they explore more optional ways of communicating, such as using signs, gestures, pictures, or electronic transmission devices. Then, CDC [6] had also approached occupational therapy to teach them how to do their daily routines. CDC [6] had subdivided occupational therapy into sensory integration therapy (sensory inputs) and physical therapy (motor skills, such as fine movements of the fingers). The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is also a broad developmental approach according to principles of ABA for children aged 12-48 months old.

Education is a place where children will interact and have a fun discussion. Children will pull out their effort to be outspoken and hyperactive when around with their friends. It is not just about academic performances but also about how they overcome against all odds when trying. Education is a necessity for all groups of people out there. They strive to their ultimate in achieving their dreams. CDC [6] was well informed about an educational therapy called Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Handicapped Children (TEACCH). Nowadays, virtual classrooms are borderless as knowledge is accessible.

CDC [6] had also mentioned another approach using socialrelational to improve social skills and build emotional bonds involving parents or peer mentors. CDC [6] had introduced the developmental, individual differences, and relationship-based model to further follow up their interests in successfully carrying out their conversations. The model is known as “floor time” [6]. Then, the relationship development intervention (RDI) model had to do with the activities that enhance motivation, interest, and abilities to participate in shared social interactions [6]. According to CDC [6], social stories provide simple descriptions of what to expect during a social situation. Social skills groups are also another intervention in helping to practice social skills in a structured environment.

In terms of medication, CDC [6] came across several benefits, such as managing high energy levels, inability to focus, self-harming behaviour, anxiety, depression, seizures, sleep problems, or stomach or other gastrointestinal problems. Health experts and experienced doctors will assist in prescribing medication and over-the-counter medication. Progressive behaviours and development may reduce the medication intake without leaving any side effects.

Based on the psychological approach, CDC [6] had proposed cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) that connected thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. CDC [6] had mentioned CBT involving therapists and individuals working together to identify goals and willing to have some changes depending on how to perceive things.

CDC [6] had also added that the complementary and alternative treatments are more to traditional approaches. For instance, special diets, herbal supplements, chiropractic care, animal therapy, art therapy, mindfulness, or relaxation therapies [6]. However, more treatments are available for children with ASD as advised by the healthcare providers.


  1. National Institute Mental Health. Autism Spectrum Disorder. 2018.
  2. Ozonoff S, Dawson G, McPartland JC. A Parent’s Guide to High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: How to Meet the Challenges and Help Your Child Thrive. (2nd ed.). Guilford Publications. 2015.
  3. Brasic JB. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medscape. 2021.
  4. Landa R. Bringing the early signs of autism spectrum disorder into focus. 2013.
  5. National Human Genome Research Institute. About Autism. 2019.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. 2020.
  7. Lord C, Risi S, DiLavore PS, Shulman C, Thurm A, Pickles A. Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of general psychiatry. 2016; 63: 694-701.
  8. Hyman SL, Levey SE, Myers SM; Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. Identification, Evaluation, and Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Peditarics. 2020; 145.

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Citation: Binti Ibrahim NA. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Austin J Autism & Relat Disabil. 2022; 8(1): 1058.

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