Probiotics: Insights on Probiotic Effects and Next Generation Therapy to Combat Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Review Article

J Bacteriol Mycol. 2015;2(1): 1013.

Probiotics: Insights on Probiotic Effects and Next Generation Therapy to Combat Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Khan MA and Morshed MN*

Department of Science and Humanities, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: Morshed MN, Assistant Professor / Instructor CI ‘B’, Department of Science and Humanities, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Mirpur Cantonment, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh

Received: March 21, 2015; Accepted: July 03, 2015; Published: July 06, 2015


Probiotics are live organisms that exert a health benefit on the host, have been used for the management of a range of gastrointestinal disorders, though there have little evidence. Interest in intestinal microflora is increased because of its effect on various gastrointestinal disorders. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a complex, multifactorial, and the most frequent gastrointestinal disorders all over the world. In more recent time, Probiotics have been explored as a possible treatment for IBD and other gastrointestinal diseases. The mode of action of probiotics has not been fully elucidated. The acceptance of probiotics has been better gradually due to the development of modern molecular methods and well-controlled experimental trials of the results of probiotics on IBD to scrutinize and recognize multifarious bacteria within human intestines. The Probiotic strains, molecular mechanism of probiotic action on human intestine, Probiotic action on IBD disease etiology are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on different gastrointestinal disorders and the consequences from experimental trials of probiotics for the treatment of such disorders are also summarized. These areas of research have great potential and deserve more experimental study at all levels.

Keywords: Probiotics; Gastrointestinal disorders; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Clinical trials


In the late 19th century, microbiologists identified the differences of microbiota in the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GI) between healthy and diseased individuals. These type of beneficial microbiota found in the GI tract were named probiotics. Probiotics are living microorganisms that beneficially influence the health of humans when ingested in adequate numbers [1]. Probiotic literally means “for life.” The Nobel laureate Metchnikoff is credited with first recognizing the health benefits of probiotics in 1907 suggesting that the consumption of living lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods may promote health and longevity by favorably modulating the gastrointestinal microflora [2]. Over the past century an expanding body of basic and clinical research supports the health benefits of probiotic consumption in a host of disorders including irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, diarrhea, food allergies, lactose intolerance, urogenital infections, and atopic eczema [3].

The actual introduction of the concept belongs to Lilly and Stillwell in 1965, after which probiotics are characterized as “microorganisms that promote growth of other microorganisms [4]. In 1974, Parker talks about a food supplement for livestock and improve name of probiotics as “organisms and substances that helps the microbial ecosystem” [5]. Their importance was highlighted by Fuller in 1989 who described probiotics as live microorganisms with beneficial effects on host body, improving intestinal microbial balance [6]. Today the universal meaning of the term “probiotic” was established by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States. These two organizations defined probiotics as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, have a beneficial effect on health of the host organism”

A number of studies have found probiotic consumption to be useful in the treatment of many types of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults, travelers’ diarrhea, and diarrheal diseases in young children caused by rotaviruses. The most commonly studied probiotic species in these studies have been found to be Lactobacillus casei sp. (Strain GG), Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus [7-9].

This literature review addresses three key issues: 1. Probiotics strains, 2. Mechanism of actions of probiotic activity, 3. Mechanism of probiotic activity on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.


Probiotics are healthy and beneficial microbial food ingredients or dietary supplements that have a useful effect on the host. The effect is influenced by increasing the metabolic activity of the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract flora. Parker defined probiotics: “Organisms and substances which throw into intestinal microbial balance”. Afterward, this was modified to read: “A live microbial feed add-on which beneficially affects the host by developing its intestinal microbial balance.”

Microorganisms used in probiotics

Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are the main genera of probiotic microorganisms. Some other bacteria and yeasts (Saccharomyces boulardii) have been used also. Bifidobacterium species and Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus are used extensively. Enterococci are used rarely as probiotics. Enterococcus faecium (St. SF68) is the best studied enterococci act as probiotics. Sometimes it is considered as alternative of antibiotics for diarrhea treatment.

Lactobacillus acidophilus: Lactobacillus acidophilus is the most widespread probiotics on the present market. It is regularly used in yogurt culture. In accordance with the National Institute of Health (NIH), the most trustworthy use of Lactobacillus acidophilus is in the cure of bacterial vaginosis.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus: Lactobacillus rhamnosus is more expensive than Lactobacillus acidophilus and shows relatively similar effects on human health. It has not been subjected to similar amount of study. The Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology comments that it has established useful affects on intestinal immunity.

Bacillus coagulans: Bacillus coagulans is comparatively rare on the market. It hasn’t been used in commercial foods unlike Bifidobacteriam and Lactobacillus species.

Bifidobacterium animalis: Bifidobacterium animalis can improve digestive activity. It is regularly used for chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome. It also used in Danon (the yogurt manufacturer) under the name “Bifidusregularis”.

: are generally considered a toxic species of bacteria. Some strains are not only nonpathogenic but also have therapeutic value. can treat and prevent ulcerative colitis.

Lactococcus lactis: Lactococcus lactis has limited medical value but it has wide commercial value. It also used in buttermilk and cheese production.

i Lactobacillus reuteri is found in the most animal’s colon which is found in human breast milk. It is called the universal probiotic. It can fight with pathogenic bacteria [10-15] (Table 1).