Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Faeces from Abattoir Waste, Processing Water and Products from Dutsin-Ma, Katsina

Research Article

J Bacteriol Mycol. 2016;3(1): 1022.

Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Faeces from Abattoir Waste, Processing Water and Products from Dutsin-Ma, Katsina

Adesoji AT*, Abubakar F and Ipinlaye JS

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Adesoji AT, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

Received: February 07, 2016; Accepted: April 18, 2016; Published: April 20, 2016


Background: Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (ARB) in abattoir waste and products are of public health concern. ARB can shuttle resistance between animal and human population through mobile genetic elements such as plasmid andintegron. There is paucity of data to proof ARB occurrence in faeces from abattoir wastes and products in Dutsin-Ma area of Katsina State, Nigeria.

Methodology: One major abattoir in Dutsin-Ma was selected for this study. Samples were therefore, taken from faeces from abattoir wastes, processing water and selected products once per week for three weeks. Microbial qualities were determined by total enterobacteriaceae count and total aerobic bacteria count on Eosin methylene blue agar and Nutrient agar respectively. Thereafter, bacteria were isolated and antibiotic resistant profiles determined by streaking on nutrient agar and disk diffusion method respectively.

Results: In the first fecal sample, highest (8.27 log cfu/ml) and lowest (4.69 log cfu/ml) total aerobic bacteria count were observed. Total enterobacteriaceae results showed that it was only in the first sample that 3.90 and 5.00 log cfu/ml were observed in the processing water and blood samples respectively. We observed 100% resistant to each of amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole and nitrofurantoin among Pseudomonas isolated from each of processing water, meat sample, liver samples and effluent respectively. Among the total E.coli isolated from the meat sample, 100% resistant to each of amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid and augmentin was observed.

Conclusions: Occurrence of ARB from this study proofed that samples are reservoir of ARB that could be shuttled between animal and human populace, hence, a public health concern.

Keywords: Faeces; Abattoir products; Antibiotic resistant bacteria; Antibiotics


An abattoir is a special facility designed and licensed for receiving, holding, slaughtering and inspecting meat animals and meat products before release to the public [1]. Nevertheless, slaughtering of livestock continues to increase as a result of the increase in demand for meat and its products [2]. Meat has been and will continues to be an important constituent of human daily meals. This is because it provides proteins and serves as source of energy [3].

However, food-borne pathogens are the leading cause of illness and death in developing countries such as Nigeria costing billions of dollars in medical care and social cost [4]. Contaminated raw meat is one of the main sources of food-borne illness [5,6]. The source of these pathogenic microorganism may be the animals themselves or from outside in particular water used for processing carcasses after slaughtering, the surroundings where these animals are kept as well as the way they are processed after slaughtering [7].

Numerous waste and microorganisms produced during abattoir operation not only pose a significant challenge to effective environmental management but also are associated with decreased quality of life among animal and human population [8,9]. The waste could also be washed away by surface runoff to contaminate ground and surface waters including market places and streets [9,10].

Antibiotic resistance means that bacteria resist the effect of one or more antibiotics, some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics naturally but bacteria can also acquire resistance [11]. This is because many of the genes involved in these resistances are carried on plasmid, transposons or integron which can act as vectors for disseminating them among bacteria species through transformation, transduction or conjugation [12]. Infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics can lead to failure of conventional treatment, longer treatments and death [13]. Resistant bacteria have been reported in effluent, processing water and products from various parts of the world. Nevertheless, no published data have been found reporting these bacteria from any abattoir from Dutsin-Ma town in Katsina State, Nigeria. However, a study like this will help medical practitioners in the town in antibiotic resistant surveillance, thereby, reducing indiscriminate use, prescription and discharge of antibiotics into the environment. Therefore, this study aimed at determination of microbial quality and isolation of antibiotic resistant bacteria from waste, processing water and products from a major abattoir in Dutsin-Ma LGA.

Materials and Methods

Site description

Mayanka abattoir in Dutsin-Ma town is a major abattoir located in Dutsin-Ma local government area of Katsina State, Nigeria was selected for this study. This abattoir has a slaughter rate of two cattle, thirty goats and sheep per week. Wastes from slaughtering processes are usually washed into the drainage system without prior treatment. Dutsin-Ma is the head quarter of the Local Government Area (LGA). It is located on latitude and longitude (12°27′18′N7°29′29′′E). The LGA has an area of 527 km² and a population of 169,671 as at the 2006 census [14]. The inhabitants of the Local Government are predominantly Hausa and Fulani by tribe and their main occupation is farming and animal rearing.

Sample collection

Six samples were collected from meat, liver from eviscerated carcass, faces, water for carcass processing, blood from carcasses and liquid effluent from abattoir outflow of this abattoir. Ten grams and 20ml of each solid and liquid samples respectively were collected. A total of 24 samples were collected by obtaining samples from each of the six samples once per week for four weeks. It is should be noted that we collected samples only once per week because the abattoir is located inside the local market, and they only slaughter on the market day i.e. once per week. This, means the abattoir is only operational once per week. All samples were maintained at temperature of 4°C in an ice pack to prevent the multiplication of endogenous microbes. Afterwards, they were transported to the Microbiology Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin- Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria for further analysis.

Determination of microbial quality, isolation of bacteria and storage of bacteria from samples

Microbial quality was determined by pour plate technique by serial dilution which involves measuring 1ml of liquid sample or 1 gram of solid sample into 9ml of sterile distilled water. Serial dilution was carried out to between 103 to 104 dilution factors in order to obtain countable bacteria colonies on the agar plates. Samples were then mixed by shaking before plating on appropriate media. Total plate counts were determined by plating out with a sterile pipette 1ml of the diluted samples from 10-2 and 10-4 into sterile Petri discs. Afterwards, sterile Nutrient Agar (NA) that had already been sterilized in an autoclave at 121°C for 15 minutes and cooled to 55°C in a water bath were then poured into the plate and allowed to set. Plates were then incubated in inverted position in an incubator at 37°C for between 24 and 48hrs. Colonies developed on agar plates were counted with a colony counter. Similar steps were repeated for total enterobacteriaceae Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar. Colonies with different morphologies were observed on the plates and streaked out on Nutrient Agar plate for purification and isolation. Colonies were then stored at 4°C on Nutrient Agar (NA) slants for further identification and characterization.

Bacteria characterization and identification

These were determined by gram staining as well as appropriate biochemical tests according to [15,16].

Determination of antibiotic resistant profile of isolates

Sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by the agar diffusion technique recommended by the CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) [17] on Mueller-Hinton agar (Oxoid) using the following antibiotic impregnated disks (Abtek Biologicals Ltd): amoxicillin (25ug), cotrimoxazole (25ug), nitrofurantoin (300ug), gentamicin (10ug), nalidixic Acid (30ug), ofloxacin (30ug), augmentin (30ug) and tetracycline (30ug). Results were classified as sensitive, resistant and intermediate while multidrug resistant bacteria were selected based on their resistance to over three classes of antibiotics.


In this study, a total of 70 bacteria were isolated, highest (32.85%) and lowest were from effluent and processing water respectively. Five Gram-negative bacteria genera were identified in all the sampled points. They include: E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Proteus (Table 1). E. coli (17/46) and Klebsiella (5/8) were frequently isolated from effluent and blood respectively. However, (Tables 2 and 3) showed the total aerobic and enterobacteriaceae count respectively. Highest (8.27 log cfu/ml) total aerobic bacteria was observed in the meat sample during the first sampling while lowest count of 4.69 log cfu/ml was observed in the feces (Table 2). The count in the meat and feces samples decreased to 5.30 log cfu/ml and 3.04 log cfu/ml respectively in the third sample. Total enterobacteriaceae results showed that it was only during the first sampling that 3.90 and 5.00 log cfu/ml was observed in the processing water and blood respectively. No count was observed in the second and third samples.