Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Various Chemicals on Isolated Chicken and Mutton Spoilage Microorganisms

Research Article

J Bacteriol Mycol. 2017; 4(3): 1051.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Various Chemicals on Isolated Chicken and Mutton Spoilage Microorganisms

Ahmad Mir B¹, Amin Mir M²*, Singh D1 and Rao Z¹

¹Department of Microbiology and Zoology, Uttaranchal College of Biomedical Sciences and Hospital, India

²Research Scholar at Uttarakhand Technical University, India

*Corresponding author: Mohd Amin Mir, Research Scholar at Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, India

Received: April 28, 2017; Accepted: May 22, 2017; Published: May 29, 2017


The study was carried out on the isolation of various micro-organisms, in which various samples of chicken and mutton were collected from different locations of the Dehradun. The process of slaughtering of the chicken and mutton as per the survey was of two types- viz, Jatka and Halal. The isolated microorganisms from the chicken samples of Jatka type include- Vibrio, Enterobacter Species, Clostridium, E.coli, Shigella, where as the micro-organisms isolated from the chicken samples of Halal type include only Enterobacter Species, Clostridium and E.coli. The micro-organisms isolated from the mutton sample of Jatka type include, Shigella, E.coli, Vibrio, staphylococcus, and the microorganisms isolated from the mutton samples of Halal type include only E.coli, Vibrio, and staphylococcus. The micro-organisms have been isolated and identified by various biochemical tests. The isolated micro-organisms have been then testified for antimicrobial susceptibility test against various chemical substances which include, Gentamicin, Naphthazarin, Azithromycin, Citric Acid, Amphotericin-B, Clindamycin, Cefixime, Norfloxacin, Streptomycin, Ampicillin. Among the various used chemical substances, Gentamicin have been found effective in inhabiting the growth of all the isolated micro-organisms, followed by Norfloxacin, Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin, Citric Acid. Least antimicrobial activity was observed for Naphthazarin, Amphotericin-B, Clindamycin, and Cefixime. Among the isolated micro-organisms shigella species was found to be less proned against the applied anti-microbial drugs, and the most susceptible micro-organism among the isolated micro-organisms includes E.coli. Also from the collected chicken and mutton samples the samples of Halal type have been to be less effective against the growth of micro-organisms as compared to the Jatka type samples, which could be due to different procedure of slaughtering technique.

Keywords: Chicken and mutton samples; Anti-microbial activity; Halal and Jatka; Vibrio; Enterobacter Species; Clostridium; E.coli; Shigella; Staphylococcus


Microorganisms can be used to transform raw foods into fermented delights, including yoghurt, cheese, sausages, Tempeh, pickles, wine, beers and other alcoholic products. On the other hand, foods also can act as a reservoir for disease transmission, and thus detection and control of pathogens and spoilage organisms are important areas of food microbiology. During the entire sequence of food handling from the producer to the final consumer, microorganisms can affect food quality and human health.

This study briefly summarizes current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products by Joanna Stadnik, Zbigniew J. Dolatowski [1]. George-John E. Nychas, Panos N. Skandamis, Chrysoula C. Tassou, Konstantinos P. Koutsoumanis [2] studied on meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the socalled Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSO).

Microbial contamination of poultry carcasses can be influenced by many factors during transport and slaughtering. The study carried out by Irena Svobodová, Gabriela Borilová [3] evaluated the impact of four processing steps (plucking, evisceration, washing and chilling) on the Total Viable Counts (TVC), counts of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. incidence on broiler carcasses. Food borne illness is a major public health concern. The largest number of food borne illness cases attributed to poultry and poultry products are caused by paratyphoid serotypes of Salmonella and by Campylobacter jejuni as studied by P.L. White A.R. Baker & W.O. James [4]. Consumption of meat is continuously increasing worldwide. The annual per capita consumption increased from 10kg in the 1960s to 26kg in 2000 and will reach 37kg by the year 2030 as per the reports by Joanna Stadnik, Zbigniew J. Dolatowski, [5]. On the other hand, a significant portion of meat and meat products are spoiled every year. Kantor et al. (1997) reported that approximately 3.5 billion kg of poultry and meat were wasted at the consumer, retailer and foodservice levels which have a substantial economic and environmental impact.

Material and Methods for Antimicrobial Analysis

The antimicrobial analyses of various “Chicken and Mutton” samples were carried out at Uttaranchal College of Biomedical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun.

Microbial world is of great importance in the present world. They are beneficial in various ways to humans, not only they help to maintain the environment clean, but also they furnish various types of antibiotics which are useful against various diseases. So this microbial analysis was carried out. All the chemicals used were of analytical grade.

Different samples of chicken and mutton were collected from the local shops at D. L. Road and Sahastradhara crossing, Dehradun then leaved all of these samples for 4 days for complete spoilage.

Identification methods

All the bacterial colonies were identified by Gram’s staining method as they are Gram -ve or Gram +ve & several biochemical characterization methods.

Litmus milk test, Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media were used to determine the load of viable cells followed by several biochemical tests for this purpose.


Identification of Bacterial strains: So far our observation is taken into consideration the following types of microorganisms have been isolated from the meat and chicken samples and are mention in the following tables (Table 1-8).