<em>E. coli</em> Coliform Mastitis in Doe and Its Antibiogram

Special Article - Escherichia Coli

J Bacteriol Mycol. 2018; 5(1): 1059.

E. coli Coliform Mastitis in Doe and Its Antibiogram

Rudra PG1 and Dutta A2*

¹Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, Bangladesh

²Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Public Health, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: Dutta A, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Public Health, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Bangladesh

Received: January 18, 2018; Accepted: February 13, 2018; Published: February 20, 2018


Rearing of goat has an important impact in improving socio-economic status of rural people in Bangladesh. Coliform mastitis caused by Escherichia coli is one the predominant constraints of this livestock production in this country. This study was designed to investigate the situation of coliform mastitis by E. coli in clinically affected doe in Chittagong. A total of 29 milk samples of mastitic doe were collected. Confirmation of coliform mastitis by E. coli was done in MacConkey, EMB agars, biochemical and staining techniques. Later, isolates were tested against 7 antimicrobials of 5 different groups using disc-diffusion technique. Epidemiological data were analyzed using STATA software to reveal their association with occurrence of E. coli coliform mastitis. Out of 29 samples 8 were confirmed as E. coli. In relation to different host factors such as breed, age, body weight and parity the highest occurrence was observed in cross breed, doe of ≤ 2years, doe having body weight of >30kg, and in doe of 1st parity which was 50%, (95% CI 2.5%-78.4%), 28.6% (95% CI 7.6-64.8), 36.4% (95% CI 15%-64.8%), and 50% (95% CI 21.5%-78.45) respectively. E. coli isolates were highly sensitive to Gentamycin (75%) and Colisitn (75%). Highest resistance was recorded against Amoxicillin (100%) and Ciprofloxacin (100%). Statistical analysis using chi2 test showed that there is no significant relationship between host factors with the occurrence of E. coli coliform mastitis. Study suggests use of Gentamycin and Colistin for the treatment of coliform mastitis in doe caused by E. coli.

Keywords: Coliform Mastitis; E. coli; Parity; Doe


Bangladesh is an agricultural country containing large number of domestic animals. Goat is one of them. Currently estimated goat population in Bangladesh is about 14.8 million (Banglapedia). This density has been increasing every year in the country. In agriculturebased country like Bangladesh goat is more familiar as poor man’s cow. Initial investment for starting goat farming is lesser than dairy, piggery, poultry and consumes less feed which is about one fifth of the consumption in cattle and buffalo [1]. In Bangladesh, goats are reared in only backyard farming system. Low income people are like to rear goat in their household for extra income. They prefer goat rearing than cattle because, it needs small scale space, low feeding cost, high litter size, low manpower for maintenance and meat has good market demand.

Goat farming in Bangladesh is very challenging due to many problems. Lack of financial and technical support, inadequate veterinary services are most crucial. Infectious diseases make the condition worse for goat rearing mainly viral diseases like PPR; Peste des Petits Ruminants, goat pox, contagious ecthyma and viral pneumonia, and bacterial diseases include enterotoxaemia, tetanus, brucellosis, mastitis and metritis whereas main fungal diseases are ring worm infection, and rickettial infections like conjunctivitis are common causes for goat mortality in rural areas. Gastro-intestinal nematodiasis, fascioliasis and tape worm infestations cause less mortality but cause severe depression in the growth and reproductive rate of the goats. Production disease such as mastitis, pregnancy toxemia, mineral deficiency also decreases production [2]. Common goat breeds reared in Bangladesh are: Black Bengal, JamunaPari, and Crossbreed- Black Bengal JamunaPari. More than 90% of the goats of the country are Black Bengal breed.

The advancement of goat farming in Bangladesh is interrupted by a number of constraints of which major one is mastitis. Mastitis is an inflammation of the parenchyma of mammary gland (udder). It is characterized by physical, chemical and usually, bacteriological changes in milk and pathological changes in glandular tissues [3].

The bedding used to house in animal is the primary source of environmental pathogens, but contaminated teat dips, intramammary infusions, water used for udder preparation before milking, water ponds or mud holes, skin lesions, teat trauma, and flies have all been incriminated as sources of infection [4,5].

Majority of coliform isolates from raw milk there were E. coli 32%, Enterobacter spp. 29.2%, Klebsiella spp. 19.4%, Serratia spp. 11.1% and Citrobacter 1.0% [6]. Coliform bacteria causes as many as 30-40% of the clinical mastitis in farm. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia marcesans are four common coliform bacteria that cause mastitis. Among the coliform mastitis only E. coli cause 5.719% mastitis in goat.

The most common bacteria that cause mastitis in goats are: Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase- negative Staphylococci spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberi, Streptococcus dysgalactia, Streptococcus caprae, Mycoplasma capricolum, Enterobacteria spp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium spp etc. The Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) causes mastitis in goats. In addition, mastitis can result from yeast infection, and it appears to be associated with the frequent use of penicillin, along with the prolonged and repetitive use of systemic and intra-mammary infusions.

Escherichia coli are a gram negative, non-spore forming rod. It may or may not be mobile. (Some rods are flagellated and some are not.) The organism is a facultative anaerobe and ferments simple sugars such as glucose to form lactic, acetic, and formic acids. The optimal conditions for growth are a temperature of 98.6°F, with a range of 45° to 114°F. The optimum pH for growth is 6.0 to 8.0. However, growth can occur as low as pH 4.3 and as high as 9 to 10 pH.

Bacteriological culturing of the milk can be used to determine if mastitis is caused by E. coli coliform bacteria. Amoxicillim, Ceftiofur, Penicilln, Cephapirim, Ciprofloxacin are those types of systemic antibiotic which can be used in coliform mastitis. In Bangladesh numerous antibiotics are used in field condition for treating the mastitis in goat.According to commonly used antimicrobilals are Gentamycin, Gentamycin+Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin, Benzyl- Penicillin, Streptomycin+ Procaine Penicillin, Ceftriaxone, Sulphadimidine, Gentamycin+ Sulphadimidine+ Trimethoprim, Gentamycin+ Amoxicillin+ Sulphadimidine, Tetracycline.

There is very little or no published information regarding the occurrence of clinical mastitis in goat caused by E. coli in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Considering the social and economic importance of goat rearing in Bangladesh present study was undertaken to reveal the present scenario in Chittagong.

The objectives of the present study are

1. To know the prevalence of coliform mastitis caused by E. coli in clinically affected goat.

2. To investigate the antimicrobials sensitivity patterns of E. coli that causing mastitis in goat.

3. To reveal the association of risk factors with the occurrence of coliform mastitis.

Materials and Methods

Study area and duration

The study was conducted during the period of 22nd January to 6th April; 2017. About 29 milk samples were collected from the doe which were suffering from clinical mastitis. Most of the samples were collected during UVH; Upazilla Veterinary Hospital placement of internship. Eighten samples from UVH; Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Hathazari, seven samples from SAQTVH; S.A. Quaderi Teaching Veterinary Hospital, CVASU; Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University during the period of lab rotation and another four samples from Rangunia Veterinary Hospital, Rangunia. Geographical location is mentioning in the Figure 1.