Multi Targets Detecting Based on Glucose Monitoring Platform

Research Article

Austin J Biosens & Bioelectron. 2016; 2(1): 1017.

Multi Targets Detecting Based on Glucose Monitoring Platform

Xiulan Zhang¹ and Jamie Hu¹*

¹Changzhou HT Biotechnology Inc. China

²Shanghai Bioscan Inc, China

*Corresponding author: Jamie Hu, Biosensorist, Shanghai Bioscan Inc. Room 302, Gumei Business Centre, 1905 Longming Road, Shanghai 201101, China

Received: February 22, 2016; Accepted: April 04, 2016; Published: April 27, 2016


The enzyme sensor field has grown greatly since 1962. Today’s biosensor market is dominated by glucose electrodes which are used for the rapid detection of blood sugar levels by diabetes sufferers. In this paper we take a comprehensive review on the inception, growth and development of the enzyme sensor field from a commercial viewpoint. The current status of the technology is evaluated and future trends that multi targets enzyme sensor i.e. cholesterol, lactate and ethanol enzyme sensors in this dynamic and fast moving field are also discussed.

Keywords: Biosensor; Enzyme; Screen-Printing; Electrochemistry; Amperometry; Glucose; Cholesterol; Lactate; Ethanol


GOx: Glucose Oxidise; ChOx: Cholesterol Oxidise; ChEt: Cholesterol Esterase; LOx: Lactate Oxidise; AlOx: Alcohol Oxidize; GDH: Glucose Dehydrogenase; LDH: Lactate Dehydrogenase; HEC: Hydroxyethyl Cellulose; BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin; POD: Horseradish Peroxidase; SPEs: Screen-printed electrodes; Med-: Mediator (oxidation state); Med+: Mediator (reduction state); CV: Cyclic Voltammetry


One of the main challenges facing the bio-analytical chemist is the development of different methods that respond to the growing need to perform rapid tests. These methods must be sensitive and accurate, and able to determine various substances with different properties in living samples. Lab on chip is a great idea but it is difficult to fabricate and expensive for a simple test. Recent years, electrochemical techniques have been much considered as routine methods due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, portable fieldbased size and low-cost. For example, glucose meter and glucose sensor is the most successful monitoring system for diabetic products, which account for approximately 95% of the current Chinese market for biosensors, and have been estimated at approximately $120–150 million. The reasons why the blood glucose market was particularly receptive are numerous, but the biggest factor is the prevalence of diabetes in China. 140 million adults with diabetes were confirmed and a further 230 million adults were also found with pre-diabetes (120 million men and 110 million women). These results indicate that diabetes has become a major public health problem in China, and national strategies aimed at preventing, detecting, and treating diabetes are urgently needed. In the absence of a cure for diabetes, home blood glucose monitoring will need to continue, and the current commercial dominance of mediated electrochemical biosensors will not be easily replaced. Since diabetic patients need to control their blood glucose levels carefully, the importance of self-monitoring of blood glucose has been widely recognized as an effective method of measuring blood sugar not only in clinics but also at home and in the working place.

Cardiovascular diseases in people are increasing day by day and cardiac arrest is a major cause of death in universal consensus. There are several causes for this but one of the most important reasons is hypercholesterolemia i.e. the increased concentration of cholesterol in the blood [1,2]. The development of efficient rapid analytical methods is important. HPLC [3], gas–liquid chromatography [4,5] methods used for the determination of total cholesterol offer sensitivity and selectivity but are neither suitable for rapid nor cost effective detection.

Enzymatic procedures have practically replaced the chemical methods based on the classical Libermann–Burchard reaction, used traditionally for free and total cholesterol determination [6]. Owing to the advantages of simplicity, rapidness and cost effectivity, a few cholesterol biosensors have been developed which are based on Cholesterol Oxidase (ChOx) and Cholesterol Esterase (ChEt) [7-14], , Cytochrome P450scc [15], fiber-optic biosensor [16,6] and acoustic wave [17]. Lactate levels in human blood or tissues are correlated to the presence of several diseases such as tissue hypoxia, cardiogenic or endotoxic shocks, respiratory failure and systemic disorders derived from neoplasic diseases, liver and renal failures or diabetes mellitus.

Thus, the development of highly sensitive and reliable lactate monitoring methods are of great interest in clinical diagnostics [18,19], food technology [20], beverage and fermentation industries [21] and clinical medicine [22,23]. Various procedures have been proposed for the direct measurement and monitoring of lactic acid levels in very different samples. The fundamentals, advantages and disadvantages of some of these methodologies have been summarized and compared in a recent review [24]. Among them, biosensor is one of the most widely investigated devices for two fundamental reasons: (1) the immobilization of an enzyme on the electrode surface may be done in an easy and reproducible way; and (2) the specificity of enzymes allows analytical measurements to be performed directly on the sample, regardless of their complexity, reducing the analysis time. Biosensors based on L-lactate Oxidase (LOx) and L-lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) has been widely used for the determination of l-lactate [25-27] and allows the determination of hydrogen peroxide generated in the enzymatic reaction [28].

The measurement of ethanol plays an important role in the quality control of alcoholic beverages during the fermentation process. It is also necessary to have rigorous analytical methods for ethanol in beverages for tax regulation purposes. Meanwhile, there are a large number of alcoholics in China which ignore the traffic regulations and life safety. The quick test of blood alcohol is important in this country trying to give a warning to those people after drink too much.

A variety of methods and strategies had been reported for the determination of ethanol including: gas chromatography [29], liquid chromatography detection [30], refractometry [31], spectraphotometry [32] based on the detection of NADH. These methods are relatively expensive, complex to perform and time consuming; therefore, alternative approaches are desirable. We had a solution in this work that an amperometric biosensor might offer such an alternative [33] as this device can be fabricated at low cost and any lay person could use it easily.

As these four substances mentioned above need to be tested in great amount daily, we described the development and fabrication of four enzyme electrodes (glucose, cholesterol, lactate and ethanol) integrated into a single strip by using screen-printing technology. The multi-targets test strip can be used to detect four substances in one drop of blood sample based on amperometric principle. This method offers the possibility of mass-production of biosensors at easy way and very cost effective. There have many investigations and studies for the four kinds of biosensors respectively, but the rest three products are rare commercially available in the market.


Since the 1990s, screen-printing technology, adapted from the microelectronics industry, has offered high-volume production of extremely inexpensive, and yet highly reproducible and reliable single-use sensors; a technique which holds great promise for onsite and point of care test. Therefore, the use of screen printing technology in the serial production of disposable low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical determination of a wide range of substances is currently undergoing widespread growth [34,35].

Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPEs) are devices that are produced by printing different inks on various types of plastic or ceramic substrates. Plastic material is commonly used as it is easy to cut into different shape. Polyester screens are generally used for printing with patterns designed by the analyst in accordance with the analytical purpose in mind. The composition of the various inks used for printing on the electrodes determines the selectivity and sensitivity required for each analysis. Alternatively, a wide variety of devices of this type are commercially available. The great versatility presented by the SPEs lies in the wide range of ways in which the electrodes may be modified. The composition of the printing inks may be altered by the addition of very different substances such as metals, enzymes, polymers, complexion agents, etc. On the other hand, the possibility also exists of modifying the manufactured electrodes by means of depositing various substances on the surface of the electrodes such as metal films, polymers, enzymes and mediators, etc. [36,37].


Enzymes were the first biocatalysts used in biosensors and remain by far the most commonly employed. Clark and Lyons [38] were the pioneers who showed that an enzyme could be integrated into an electrode, thus making a biosensor for the determination of glucose. Since then, enzymes have been extensively used in biosensor construction [39]. Disposable biosensors based on enzyme immobilization on SPEs have been widely used for the analysis of several analytes.

Enzyme inks are made of different oxidase with binder, stabilizer, mediator and surfactant etc. Glucose Oxidase (GOD), Cholesterol Oxidase (ChOD), Lactate Oxidase (LOD) and Alcoholic Oxidase (AlOD) enzyme inks were printed separately in different working areas on a single strip. Figure 1 shows an enzyme ink product and Table 1 lists the normal ingredient of an enzyme ink.