Biosensors: Clinical Lab Biomarkers and Radiologic Biosensing of the Chikungunya Virus

Review Article

Austin J Biosens & Bioelectron. 2016; 2(1): 1018.

Biosensors: Clinical Lab Biomarkers and Radiologic Biosensing of the Chikungunya Virus

Rakesh Sharma*

Innovations and Solutions Inc and Florida State University Research Foundation, USA

*Corresponding author: Rakesh Sharma, Innovations and Solutions Inc and Florida State University Research Foundation, Westcot Building, Woodward Ave. Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA

Received: April 25, 2016; Accepted: May 23, 2016; Published: May 25, 2016


Chikungunya virus is emerging as threat in Southeast Asia along with dengue fever after mosquito bite. Its mode of transmission through mosquito is understood to initiate endemic especially in colonies with poor sanitation. Clinical manifestations are not established since its first occurrence and patients died in year 2009. Since then, clinical manifestations, diagnosis of the chikungunya virus pathophysiology and transmission of the chikungunya virus have been investigated as possible acute and chronic clinical manifestations such as rheumatologic, ophthalomogic, neurologic, hepatitis, cardiomyopathy and fever. However, various clinical lab biosensors and radiologic biosensing are needed in the state of emergency using clinical evaluation by x-ray, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine and lab investigations. A cursor review of the expected epidemiology, pathophysiology and transmission of the chikungunya virus is presented to find the possibility of clinical lab biosensors and radiologic imaging of the chikungunya virus as manifestations to help and guide healthcare professionals in making a timely diagnosis. With time, new advanced techniques of biosensing and bioimaging will certainly come out with more specific and precise detection and diagnosis of chikungunya virus to explain etiology.

Keywords: Chikungunya; Mosquito; Radio imaging sensing


Chikungunya fever is caused by the chikungunya virus. It is caused and transmitted by the bite of infected mosquito genus Aedes. Virus causes arbovirus disease. Very first evidences of Chikungunya fever and deaths were in Southeast Asia in India in year 2009 [1,2]. The virus had a relatively high incidence in India, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, Africa, France, Italy, and Australia in last five years. Later, World Cup festivities in Brazil become spotlight with possible increased incidence of the virus imported to the United States. Initially, the virus was thought as simple fever and benign clinical course. Later, its incidence increased deaths and mortality. With time, its clinical manifestations were better understood and it is now known to carry a higher morbidity by possible use of early and timely clinical lab biosensors and radiologic biosensing [1]. With advancements in biosensor techniques there is great hope of early detection and monitoring the spread of virus before it becomes a life threat. Extracellular matrix and ligament specific molecular imaging biosensors have a big role in quick detection and evaluation of virus spread.


In last five years, Chikungunya spread was established due to virus that may demonstrate a pattern of cyclic epidemics. It was characterized by outbreaks of viral disease ranging from several years to a few decades. The exact course still is not fully understood. It is observed that international travel might facilitate the introduction of the virus from endemic areas. Best evidence was chikungunya during World Cup event in Brazil. It became clear that early clinical examination by clinical lab biosensors and radiologic bioimaging certainly might decrease the risk of chingunya among athletes, business executives, diplomats, scientists and VIP dignitaries traveling abroad.

Clinical manifestations

Recently, clinical picture showed that the virus spread is abrupt and most commonly presents with high grade fever (1-2 days), rash, and arthralgias (A clinical trial of high grade fever, arthralgia and rash). The rash is mostly a maculopapular rash with irritation and seen typically over the trunk and extensor surfaces of the extremities. The arthralgias may or may not be symmetrical and usually involves severe pain in the terminal joints. Literature and case reports of the Chikungunya virus spread suggest the increased morbidity with quick neurologic impairment, ocular involvement, cardiomyopathy, fulminant hepatitis, hemorrhagic manifestations, and chronic arthritis [1,2]. The cause of quick spread mostly is natural cycle human-mosquito-human of the virus [1]. Other possibility of mosquito bite is spread of Dengue virus and developing fever.

Present trend is that biosensors and bioimaging play a significant role in diagnosis. Major success is visualizing less known neurologic, rheumatologic and cardiac pathological features sooner

Bioradiologic Imaging Manifestations:

a. Neurologic: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggests and indicates neurological abnormalities such as altered mental status, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. Frequently, biosensing indications from MRI findings include nonspecific white matter changes, ventriculomegaly and enhancement of ventral nerve roots shown in Figure 1 [3,4].