Moral Control in South African Local Government

Review Article

Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2017; 1(1): 1003.

Moral Control in South African Local Government

Zonke NM*

Department of Public Management, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

*Corresponding author: Nyaniso Mfusi Zonke, PhD candidate, Department of Public Management, Faculty of Business and Management Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Received: April 20, 2017; Accepted: May 09, 2017; Published: May 17, 2017


In many areas, local governance in South Africa partake function effectively as an instrument of national development because of ethical and managerial failures. Municipalities ought to be at the sustainable phase which would mean that all policies, systems and procedures are in place for good governance. There should be a omnipresent governance local: a legitimate assurance that nearby will remain local government over the dominion of the country. The chief trial inside and amongst local government is a politico- administrative gulf which archaeologically has continuously been an issue in public Administration, Actual Area Commissions for official expansion in dazzling on the superlative rehearsal at the operative level, and reposes on the need to capacitate area commissions in terms of skills: equipping them to maintain a world class service standard. The study used Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, Mnquma Local Municipality and Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in order to conclude whether governance practices have bearing on service delivery at National level in South Africa. A qualitative approach research stood used and data qualitatively was collected in addition to severe prose evaluation and scrutiny.

Extensive collection of material composed on this level from respondents postulated that local governance ought to only have area representation although full-time councilors. Part-time members found it problematic to do both meanings as of extraordinary mandate from the community and from their jobs. The proportion of time allocated to municipal commitment should maybe be rated at 80% and private employment 20% rather than 60% each. Importance should be on financial decision-making power. Municipalities should be mortals of the Constitution rather than individuals of statute. Logically, collected evidence recommended that good governance performs are unquestionably essential to service delivery and sequentially rally people’s living standard mostly those living in rural areas. This reading institute that government implemented good governance practices. However, inapt governance observes by specific civic institutions interval service delivery in these Municipalities.

Keywords: Democracy; Good governance; Public participation; Service delivery; Public sector governance


Madell [1] specified that Indigenous governance devises stood assumed a characteristic rank and portion in building egalitarianism and heartening socio-economic growth. Local administration is the domain of regime neighboring to resident business and societies, tasked with ensuring progress and advance of communities. Since 2000, indigenous administration in South Africa has been assigned the important character of renewing resident societies after the apartheid era, to generate mutual, economically and socially tough communities [2,3]. The maximum latent for advance support happens at the resident administration near, with an emphasis on enticing reserves, crafting jobs and increasing demand. Indigenous administration’s role has prolonged from providers of public goods and basic social services, to include indigenous economic growth ingenuities [4].

The South African Constitution [5] requires indigenous administration to be progressive and endorse hands-on nationality. Indigenous societies obligate the right to socio-economic growth inside their areas. Agreeing to the Public Administration and Management Bill [6], the Structure necessitates all spheres of government to take lawmaking, strategy design, and other travels to attain the obligatory socio-economic growth. The Education and Training Unit (ETU) [7] conditions that growing indigenous administration revenues indigenous administration that maximizes communal and monetary growth, delivers infrastructural amenities, generates comfortable breathing zones and enables incorporation and conglomerates.

South Africa’s post-apartheid growth strategy emphases on progressive administration through public emphasis and pro-poor status. Indigenous administration has stayed fortified to arbitrate and show a principal part in job construction and decrease of poverty. The main limitations in bringing consequences in pro-poor operation are deprived scrutiny of indigenous markets, unmaintainable community growth projects, lack of ability, and lack of capitals [8]. Cities in South Africa appear nonexistence appropriate monetary tactics in place to incredulous the trials of poverty, joblessness and dissimilarity. Indigenous Monetary Growth (IMG) has been acknowledged as an imperative instrument for development in the municipal sphere, but it is still not a priority due to limited funding, skills and capacity. Local Economic Development (LED) methods absence meticulous plans for interventions, monitoring and evaluation and small rural municipalities especially those that struggle to implement LED initiatives [9].

Permitting to Rogerson [10], an absence of route from advanced scopes of administration has occasioned in indigenous administration actuality hesitant of what functions to priorities. A verdict has to be taken concerning equilibrium amid pro-poor and pro-development strategies. LED necessitates strong leadership, which has not been forthcoming. Better-quality amalgamation and co-operation between stakeholders and government departments are required to avoid duplication of tasks, with the formation of harmonizing roles for all stakeholders. A combined method includes connections to the Integrated Development Planning (IDP) procedure, substructure growth, advertising and speculation tactics, services growth, free enterprise, growth and conception of a qualifying troposphere for business improvement. Sibisi [11] shapes that rural communities are especially in need of solid indigenous administration nonetheless obligate the puniest indigenous administration structures with lack of information, skills, funding and capacity.

Imperative for indigenous administration to construct an extra sanctioning troposphere, a number of challenges exist. Some of these challenges include twisted settlement patterns, an unequal distribution of economic and social activities, financial instability and poor capacity [2]. Conferring to the Community Law Centre [12], indigenous administration’s progressive utility is repressed by an excess of complex laws such as the Municipal Structures Act (117 of 1998) and the Municipal Systems Act (32 of 2000). Administration’s answer to this is the outline of even harsher laws, rather than provision and command. The consequences of the strangulation include high costs and capacity allocated to compliance, opting out of functions as listed in the Constitution, and stifling of ideas, and initiatives (Community Law Centre [12]).

Scrutiny of the notion of governance

Bestowing to the UNDP 1997: 11, governance is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage a nation’s affairs. Governance is a complex word since it predicts numerous concepts such as democracy and transparency. An element of this conception supports us understand these conceptions better. It is why in most cases this notion is always attached or used with these concepts as they supplement one another. Governance is a system of values, policies and institutions by which society manages its economic, political and social affairs through interaction within and among state, civil society and private sector Reddy [13]. Heywood [14] opposes that the notion of governance is wider than government. He advances energies on to explain it as the way through which social life is coordinated. Governance has to do with the fashion in which command is implemented in the running of a country’s economic and social resources for growth. It is attaining the most suitable expansion policy purposes to justifiable advance society by mobilizing, applying and coordinating all available domestic and international resources in the public, private and voluntary sectors in the most effective, efficient and democratic way.

Governance is a multi-disciplinary concept that has been defined and interpreted in different ways by scholars especially in social sciences [15-17]. Demarcated in humblest footings, governance has to do with the style in which a nation is administered, the technique policy ought to activate and in what way control is implemented.

Features of respectable governance

The need for respectable authority as a solution to the disaster of supremacy in the municipalities and Africa’s socio-economic quandary remained putting forward by the World Bank. Originally, respectable governance encompasses well-organized rehearses for monetary growth and eventually political scopes. The World Bank attitude on respectable governance that has conquered matters generally rests on six pillars which are appropriate to the macro or state levels, regional and local. These are political accountability, freedom of association and popular participation, sound judicial system bureaucratic accountability, freedom of information, and capacity building [1].

Respectable governance is about apparent and answerable administration of the country’s resources. The major concern of IMF is upgrading of administration of public resources, maintenance of transparent and stable political/ legal and socio-economic environment that promote efficient private sector activities and effective development management. The IMF’s guidelines of good governance are limited to the economic aspects of good governance; especially those that pertain to improving management of public resources and supporting development and maintenance of transparent and stable economic environment that is conducive to private sector activities [1].

Incidental Background

The Constitution of South Africa Act 108 of 1996 offers the overarching basis indoors which all planning activities for government in all three spheres of government must take place. In terms of Section 152 of the Constitution, local government needs to focus on the following aspects [2,5,18]:

The Constitution states that a municipality must “structure and manage its administration, budgeting and planning processes to give priority to the basic needs of the community, and to promote the social and economic development of the community, and participate in national and provincial development programmes” [5].

Rendering to Atkinson [19] indigenous administration has knowledgeable three waves of development since 1994. The first wave, from 1994 to 1997, was the political unification of municipalities separated under apartheid. Through this phase, the focus was on radical transformation somewhat than community effective and growth. The second wave started in 1998 with the concept of developmental local government. Public limitations were amended and a ‘wall-to-wall’ public system was introduced through the Municipal Structures Act (117 of 1998) and the Municipal Systems Act (32 of 2000). The developmental state was defined within the framework of four principles: maximization of social and economic development, integrated and coordinated development activities, citizen participation and strong leadership-building capacity. The third wave started after the first fully democratic municipal elections in 2000, when municipalities were reduced from 843 to 284 and recently to 278. This last wave, requiring municipalities to fulfill the development paradigm with economic development and service delivery, has proven to be difficult to implement [19].

A permitting growing atmosphere is defined by Christy et al. [20], as a set of policies, institutions, support services and other conditions that collectively improve or create a general business setting where enterprises and business activities can start, develop and thrive. Such an enabling environment boosts the competitiveness of a specific region or area [21].

Conferring to Turok [22], the expansion state idea is an effort to bond the opening among a centrally intentional bargain and a free market economic system. Administration needs to define the roles of the various spheres of government clearly to ensure effective implementation and limitation of duplication. All spheres of government must be integrated vertically and horizontally. Koven and Lyons [23] list economic development tools in the local sphere as financial incentives, grants, loans, development zones, and economic research and marketing. These aspects relate to the concept of the developmental state, which has decentralized powers, partnerships, poverty reduction projects and environmental management [24].

The expansion state desires emphasis on both economic growth expenditure and communal outlay. Nearby necessity is equilibrium between pro-poor development (social and welfare) versus progrowth development (market oriented). A number of lessons are learnt from the success of global government activities, inter alia that partnerships with the private sector are important for development, support policies are required for entrepreneurial development, local economies need to be internationally competitive, and the creation of jobs is far more important than increasing dependence on welfare [25].

Respectable governance narrates to official capacity in management and administration and includes formal and informal structures within government institutions. It includes the aptitude to co-ordinate and to assist with application of policies, projects and action plans, and includes public involvement, institutional development, transparency in decision-making processes and accountability. Good governance underpins LED, and the main link between the two concepts is to provide a local business-enabling environment [26].

A precarious portion of growing indigenous administration is economic development. According to Todaro and Smith [27], economic development means the sustained growth of income per capita to enable a community to export its output at a faster rate than population growth. Blakely and Bradshaw [28] state that local and regional economic development potential equals a local area’s capacity in terms of the economic, social and technology sectors and its resources, which include the physical environment, location, labour, capital investment, entrepreneurial climate, transport, export market and government spending.

Indigenous administration structures, policies and initiatives

Actual integrative policies and institutional capacity are required in line with the principles of respectable governance which include the principles of a dense and rationalized institution [26,29-33] Indigenous guidelines want to be tranquil to promote business development, and policies need to be more investment friendly, while capacity building and skills training are important factors [26,31,34] Decentralization of decision-making is one of the main factors supporting developmental local government [35]). Business registration and licensing need to be relaxed [36]. Indigenous administration desires to emphasis it’s budgeting and spending to promote development and provision of basic needs. Sufficient budgeting needs to be allocated to operational and capital development projects [28].

Indigenous administration requests effort on research and innovation and develop incentives such as tax reductions, land development incentives and support, marketing and strengthening of institutional capacity [29,32,33]. Developmental local government needs to eradicate corruption, and ensure an agile structure that could adapt rapidly to changes in the development environment. Public works projects and, if suitable, Industrial Development Zones (IDZ) need to be established [37]. Good governance and political stability are important factors for economic development and poverty reduction [21,38]. A good and clear tax management policy is important. Tax incentives grant investors an advantage over other businesses and manufacturers [21].

Poverty mitigation and social development ingenuities

Indigenous expansion is about economic growth and development of the excellence of life of indigenous communities. The delivery of basic needs and social welfare community facilities forms the propoor component of growth. Absence of rudimentary supplies keeps people surrounded in poverty and prevents them from climbing the ladder of social and economic success. Basic needs include nutrition, health care, water, sanitation, shelter, education, skills, a sense of well-being and belonging, access to land and the ability to find work [27,34,39,40].

Indigenous administration needs production role as poverty relief agents for higher spheres of government [8]. The poor necessity to be protected from trauma of various kinds by means of the provision of safety nets, as they are the vulnerable section of the rural community [41]. The provision of safety nettings for the poor assists in poverty reduction. Safety nets include social grants, housing subsidy and other forms of subsidies, and the distribution of ownership through housing and land reform projects [23,29,35,42-44].

Monetary growth ingenuities

Inclusive monetary growth, foremost to growth with jobs, is obligatory for any successful region. Jobs top to enhancement in quality of life and development. Eventually, the goal is for monetary progression to nurture faster than population growth, leading to an increase in per capita income [27]. As quantified in the New Growth Path (NGP), fiscal sectors, which have the potential for labour

Inclusive monetary growth, foremost to growth with jobs, is obligatory for any successful region. Jobs top to enhancement in quality of life and development. Eventually, the goal is for monetary progression to nurture faster than population growth, leading to an increase in per capita income [27]. As quantified in the New Growth Path (NGP), fiscal sectors, which have the potential for labour intensive job creation, need to be supported. These segments embrace manufacturing, mining, tourism, agriculture plus agro-processing, the green economy and retail. The agricultural sector must lead to agro-processing and, eventually, industrial development. Approaches to mature the non-agricultural sectors comprise provision of improved transport, a focus on competitive advantages, infrastructure development, industrial cluster development and the improvement of the enabling economic environment [41].

LED enterprises are executed by means of a well-formulated LED strategy, containing specific projects. Business development through the attraction of new business and assisting existing businesses is required [29,33,45]. The economic base of the local area needs to be strengthened by focusing on export activities and value-added products [33,34]. Local government needs to focus on locality development through marketing of comparative advantages, land development, business and SMME support [28,31,37,46].

LED creativities embrace the creation of a positive investment climate, support to SMMEs and evolving businesses, attraction of new businesses, area based development plans for rejuvenation, and support to deprived societies [26,34,42,47-49]. Export promotion will lead to increased productivity and better economic performance, especially in manufacturing and in agriculture, mining and tourism [36].

Conservational and spatial expansion schedules

Clean, quality physical atmospheres attract financial enlargement where sound conservational running is practiced [23,30,33,40,42]. Spatial arrangement is based on the calculated arrangement process, and is therefore vision-based, benevolent path in local economic planning. Financial progress planning must be combined with spatial planning, which will safeguard the spatial and geographic grounding of economic activities at optimal localities within a region. Spatial planning is integrative in nature and aims to ensure integrated land use planning to address spatial imbalances of the past, assist in the creation of enabling environments, improve economic rural-urban linkages through development corridors, ensure compact urban areas, support active participation, and ensure sustainable environments with a sense of place and viable local communities [41].

Spatial preparation wits must endeavor to create mixing of establishments and other planning activities such as economic and social planning. Spatial planning needs to afford direction to, and a long-term growing vision for, a local area [28,38]. Spatial planning initiatives can lead to the integration of the physical environment through principles such as nodes, corridors and densification of urban areas. This could lead to the correction of the historically created apartheid landscape [29,50].

Infrastructure development

The absence of basic infrastructure development and maintenance, as well as the lack of capacity, provides a barrier for development [30,33]. Investment in new ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ infrastructure is a requirement for an enabling developmental environment [26,48]. Infrastructure includes good capacity roads, water, sewers, ports, storage, cold chains, and energy generation [21,34]. The provision of well-developed infrastructure with capacity will allow for a comparative advantage and an enabling environment [10].

Human resource development

The lack of a skilled workforce, entrepreneurial development, and elevation, marketing and management skills encompasses barriers to development [30]. Labour regulations need to be simplified and a balance needs to be found between protection of workers and flexibility of labour laws [36]. Botreo [51] states that the heavy regulation of labour increases unemployment, especially amongst young people, while flexible regulations boost job creation. Human supply development includes skills development, training programmes, and improvement of labors laws and regulations [26,28,34,37,42,48].

Free enterprise expansion

The establishment of a culture of free enterprise and skills expansion is a long- term investment and is necessary for building competitive and advanced industries [36]. High levels of taxation and local regulations are barriers to local business development and free enterprise [45]. Emerging impresarios require mentorship, access to start-up finance, progressive and supportive policies, relaxed regulations, training and support [11,25,26].

Agricultural improvement actions

The agricultural sector is a major producer of employ as one of the job drivers of the NGP that assists in poverty reduction and food security [30,40]. Access to land ownership through land reform projects, provides poor beneficiaries with an opportunity to break the cycle of poverty [35]. Emerging, as well as commercial farmers, need to be supported by means of access to finance, infrastructure development such as irrigation systems, research regarding export opportunities, and new market identification and incentives [52].

Statutory and judicial framework for noble supremacy

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996: Section 9 (1-5) of Act 108 of 1996 states that all people are equal before the law and have equal rights to protection and benefit from the law. Section 2 and 1(c) further state that constitution is the supreme law of the Republic and there shall be rule of law in the land. The concept of rule of law is an important provision. Both the political arm which is the councilors, mayors, executive mayors and mayoral committee and administrative arm in local government must respect, observe and comply with all constitutional provisions in order to ensure good governance. Section 196 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa second amendment Act, 3 of 2003 makes provision for good governance through a set of good public administration guidelines. The following are the guideline principles:

These values and guideline principles of public administration apply to local sphere of government as well. It becomes the duty of political leadership and municipal managers to ensure that they are instilled in the municipal workforce through training and workshops.

Local government: municipal finance management Act 56 of 2003: The municipal finance management act 56 of 2003 is one of the most important pieces of Local Government legislation in so far as ensuring good governance of financial matters is concerned. It deals with management and control of municipal bank accounts, handling of withdrawals, budget preparation processes, publication of annual budgets, auditing requirements, debt disclosures, use of municipal websites to publish information, and financial governance matters dealing with irregular, fruitless and wasteful expenditure, provision of reporting improper interference by councilors mostly barring those participation in tender committees. This Act is aimed at securing sound and sustainable management of the financial affairs of municipalities and other institutions in the local spheres of government. This establishes treasury norms and standards and provides matter connected therewith.

The object of this act is to secure sound and sustainable management of the fiscal and financial affairs of municipalities and municipal entities by establishing norms and standards and other requirement for:

Ensuring transparency, accountability and appropriate lines of responsibility in the fiscal and financial affairs of municipalities and entities

Municipal electoral act 27 of 2000: The Municipal electoral act 27 of 2000 section 19-22 provides guidelines to regulate municipal elections, setting up of voting stations, relocations and boundaries of voting stations for local government elections. Elections are but one means of achieving democratic government, an essential element of good governance.

Promotion of access to information act 2 of 2000: Section 32 of this act broadly gives effect to two constitutional provisions aimed at fostering a culture of transparency and accountability in private and public bodies by giving effect to the right to access to information and actively promoting a society in which the people of South Africa have effective access to information to enable them to fully exercise and protect their rights. Section 32 (1) (a) of the constitution provides that everyone has a right to access any information held by the state and section 32 (1) (h) of the constitution provides for horizontal application of the right of access to information held by another person to everyone when that information is required for exercise or protection of any rights.

Protected disclosure Act 26 of 2000: This act was promulgated in order to ensure transparency and avoid corruption in the public and private sectors. This act makes provision for procedures in terms of which employees in both private and public sector may disclose information regarding unlawful or irregular conducts by their employers to provide for the protection of the employees who make disclosure which is protected in terms of this Act and provide for matters connected therewith. This Act recognized the criminal and other irregular conduct in organs of state and private bodies are detrimental to good, effective, accountable and transparent governance in organs of state, open and good corporate governance in private bodies.

Section 8 (1) of this Act makes provision for protected disclosure to certain persons or bodies and these are regarded as disclosure made in good faith. The bodies are Public Protector, Auditor General or a person or body prescribed for purposes of this section. Auriacombe [53] argues that the enactment of this piece of legislation proves that the government is serious in its commitment to tackle bad governance without exposing those who bring this to the attention of the authorities to too much risk. Protected disclosure Act 26 of 2000 encourages and protects whistle-blowers and may therefore report on their activities.

Municipal systems Act 32 of 2000: This act aims at providing for the core principles, mechanisms and processes that are necessary to enable municipalities to move progressively towards the social and economic upliftment of local communities and ensure universal access to essential services that are affordable to all. This act defines the legal nature of municipality’s political and administrative structures to provide for the manner in which municipal powers and functions are exercised and performed to provide community participation; establish simple and enabling framework for the core process of planning, performance management, resource mobilization and organizational change which underpin the notion of development and local government. Sections 16, 17, 18 and 19 of Municipal Systems Act, 2000 (Act 32 of 2000) provides for public participation to allow transparency, involvement, openness, accountability, responsibility, and participation. The municipality must encourage and create conditions for the local community to participate in the affairs of the municipality.

State Integrity Outline and Moral Power

The state integrity system tactics exposes newfangled form of verdict and potential therapy for corruption. Instead of looking at separate institutions, or separate rules and practices and stand-alone reform programmes, it is important to look at inter-relationships, inter-dependence and combined effectiveness in a holistic approach. For instance what is the benefit of sound and clean judiciary ready to uphold the rule of law, if there is corruption among the police, investigators, prosecutors, or the legal profession? Judges would simply not receive the case they should hear; they would then sit in splendid isolation - honest, capable, yet able to achieve little [54].

State integrity columns afford for:

Statutory strategies

Statutory strategies for promoting ethical conduct are those strategies that have been provided for by the constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996.

Public service commission

Pope [54], argues that to ensure the maintenance of sound public service delivery, many countries provide for public service commission’s whether in their institutions or in their general law. The institutions independent of the government of the day are desired to promote and protect the integrity of public servants. The public service commission in South Africa was established in terms of Section 195 (1) of constitution act 108 of 1996. Its independence and impartiality are provided for and safeguard by Section 196 (2) of the constitution in the interest of the promotion of effective public finance and administration and a high standard of professionalism and ethics in public service which includes the local government.

Auditor general

Pope [54] argues that the auditor general is the fulcrum of a country’s integrity system. As the office responsible for auditing government income and expenditure, an effective auditor-general acts as watchdog over financial integrity and credibility of reported information. Office of the Auditor General audits financial statements of government on behalf of Parliament. According to Mafunisa [55] the post of South African Auditor General was created in terms section 188 (1) of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The legislature appoint some of their members to public account or finance committees which can summon accounting officers to give account on financial transaction involving specific institutions. Cloete [56] argues that the word ‘accounting’ refers to the rendering of accounts: not to account in the sense of bookkeeping.

Local government integrity system

When asked to identify columns in their own government integrity systems mayors from several African cities identified the equivalents at the local level, of the columns and interestingly added as a final column, the National integrity system as the provider of national judicial and police services and as major partner for local administrations. Therefore the municipal integrity system, the National integrity system is recorded by itself as compromising a column. It is of course augmented by local arrangement for procurement, audit and public access to meetings of elected representatives [54].

One of the key objectives of the Public Financial Management Act, 1999 (Act 1 of 1999) is to eliminate waste and corruption in the use of public assets. It promotes effective public financial management and professionalism in finance and asset management. It is an instrument that enables authorities to make sure that the public financial interest is protected [57] against the abuse of private gains. In that instance, the Local Government: Municipal Finance Management Act, 2003 (Act 56 of 2003) was promulgated. The act came to give guidelines for municipalities to comply with the provision of Section 216 of the constitution. The section provides for National treasury, to prescribe measures to ensure proper expenditure control in all spheres of government. Parliament wanted to: regulate financial management in municipalities; ensure that all revenue, expenditure, assets and liabilities of municipalities and municipal entities are economically, effectively and efficiently managed; determine the responsibilities of officials and councilors entrusted with local financial management and provide for other financial matters concerning municipalities.


Immoral supremacy in indigenous administration in the South African cities has bent a disaster of sureness in movements of authority. Inhabitant’s no lengthier trust that their administration will brand decent their possibilities to transport amenities. A mainstream of folks are continually confronted with the daily predictions of lack of health services, sanitation services, clean water, roads, housing and starvation because state institutions have become paralysed by indices of unscrupulous demeanor such as corruption and thus miscarry to transport amenities. To endorse respectable authority in the cities in South Africa these requisite be well-thought-out and censored


Administration’s role in terms of progress is to provide a permitting atmosphere for the other role players of the service delivery triangle to be effective. Administration, through policy and implementation, needs to initiate progressive projects, which must be handed over to the private sector or local communities as sustainable projects. The process of creating an enabling environment should include the economic, social, political, physical and basic needs environments. Good governance underpins local development, and provides the link between the two concepts in order to create an enabling environment. Good governance within any region is critical. Good governance relating to developmental local government means the co-ordination of all initiatives, clear policy formulation, well-planned interventions and the creation of quality physical and economic enabling environments.

Progressive indigenous regime desires to attain the following goals: to improve quality of life, create more accessible economic opportunities, build capacity, reduce poverty and improve community development. In order to achieve the above goals, capacity needs to be improved regarding strategic planning, integration, co-ordination and community engagement.

Triumph is, however, conceivable if the above issues could be addressed. In addition, success is possible if roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders are well defined, and the factors for an enabling milieu, as listed, are addressed. Also of importance is the integration of IDP, SDF, LED and conservational controlling for optimal enactment. The launch of partnerships between government and other role players is critical for good service delivery. This though requires political stability. Lastly, the 2011 World Economic Forum (WEF) report states that, globally governments need to transform themselves into FAST (flatter, agile, streamlined, and technicallyenabled) governments. The concept of FAST government consists of best practice governance aspects such as increased citizen engagement, administrative efficiency, decentralized decisionmaking, an agile highly-skilled workforce with problem-solving capabilities, and a streamlined government with a reduction in the size of the public service, and a highly innovative and technically enabled government service [58]. Government, and especially local government, in South Africa need to adhere to these principles if the levels of service delivery are to be increased.


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Citation: Zonke NM. Moral Control in South African Local Government. Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2017; 1(1): 1003.

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