Management of Protected Areas and Ecotourism, What Relationship?

Review Article

Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2020; 4(1): 1045.

Management of Protected Areas and Ecotourism, What Relationship?

Selkani I*

University Mohammed V in Rabat, University Institute of Scientific Research, Morocco

*Corresponding author: Ikrame Selkani, University Mohammed V in Rabat, University Institute of Scientific Research, Morocco

Received: January 27, 2020; Accepted: February 20, 2020; Published: February 27, 2020


In Morocco, the creation of National Parks is governed by the Dahir of September 11, 1934. These parks are the responsibility of the High Commissioner for Water, Forests, and the fight against desertification. Since the Rio Summit (1992), Morocco has developed a strategy for conservation and development of protected areas

Protecting and conserving the bio ecological qualities of the environment, Assuming international responsibility for maintaining global biodiversity, Supporting private and associative initiatives related to the protection of nature ... are, among other things, the objectives of setting up parks natural, without forgetting to initiate respectful travel vis-à-vis the environment without degrading natural areas, what is now called green tourism.

Keywords: National park; SIBE: “Site of Biological and Ecological Interest; Protected areas; Territorial management; Morocco; Green tourism; Khenifiss National Park; Toubkal National Park


The introduction of modern management techniques in the management of public services is one of the major principles of territorial management, which makes adjustments in the public domain, in particular:

1. Switch more from an authoritarian administration to a more welcoming and more citizen-friendly administration

2. Revise the administrative organization towards more flexibility and productivity

3. Introduce modern management techniques to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness

4. Reform in the direction of adapting public action to the national and international environment, which is undergoing profound changes and combating mercilessly the lack of quality in the delivery of public services at all levels of government and citizen relations.

Territorial management thus opposes the principles of bureaucracy, which are centralization, the continuity of the relationship between the administration and the political authorities, prudence as well as close monitoring of processes [1].

Territorial planning has the possibility of being connected to a level of innovation. Each order of space at a certain level must be homogenized with orders already made at other levels for harmony.

When we talk about strategic management, it means a new way of managing what is done to achieve your long-term goals. “Innovation is one of the forces around which all processes of economic development and social well-being are articulated”

Taking into account the objective of improvement, development and realization, also, new objectives, strategic and innovative management is essential. Whether at the economic level or at the social level, planning is very important for the present and the future.

Today, more importantly, it is not only the growth or development will gain a territory following a strategy and planning previously studied, but interdependence, autonomy. Each territory is specific, unique in itself, and the management of each must be unique, because in any case they will be complementary and interdependent with the other levels.

We need to build the city for two reasons:

5. Lower transport costs through the establishment of companies, which is no longer conditioned by this cost factor resulting in an unequal distribution of activity

6. Acceleration of urbanization causing a very high concentration of individuals that leads to dysfunction at the social level.

Morocco is counted Mediterranean countries by its ecological diversity, in terms of bio climate, morphology, vegetation and wildlife. This diversity is at the origin of the richness of the landscapes and the natural environments of high quality where there is an exceptional patrimonial richness in the field of the natural environment.

A park is a space that is structured in several areas, which is not uniform: there are highly protected areas and prohibited access, others that allow controlled access and others that are designed for tourism and discovery.

From 1942 to 2006, Morocco experienced the creation of nine national parks, under the National Parks Act dating back to 1934, namely [2-11].

Manage protected areas

A park is a space that is structured in several areas, which is not uniform: there are highly protected areas and prohibited access, others that allow controlled access and others that are designed for tourism and discovery. This transition space between land and water is an exceptional natural heritage because of its biological richness and natural function they fulfill.

According to the Protected Areas Act No. 22-07, a national park may be defined as follows: “A national park is a natural, terrestrial and / or marine area, in the absolute sense, intended to protect biological diversity, landscape and cultural values and geological formations of special interest, developed and managed for cultural, scientific, educational, recreational and tourist purposes, respecting the natural environment and the traditions of neighboring populations”

The establishment of a national park has four objectives:

1. Conserving, rehabilitating and conserving natural and cultural resources,

2. Contribute to sustainable local development by reconciling conservation needs with the need for economic and social development,

3. Promote awareness and increase the sensitivity of actors and visitors through an awareness and environmental education program

4. Develop scientific research

Law 22-07 on Protected Areas, published in the Official Bulletin of 19 August 2010, provides for the creation by the High Commission of twenty or so SIBE: Priority Sites of Biological and Ecological Interest by 2020, spread over 9 regions.

The management of protected areas in Morocco are managed by the High Commission for Water Forests and the fight against desertification, whose management method is based primarily on three major axes:

5. A clear definition of the objectives of conservation protection of the bio-ecological qualities of the environments.

6. Establishment of a management and management system based on the objective zoning system.

7. The creation of partnership reports, more or less contractual zed with users and operators.

The strategy relating to the protection and the heritage management of the natural environment, can be related to several general objectives, concerning Morocco and even the planet if one refers to the global ecological systems and to the last international decisions of which:

8. Assume international responsibility for maintaining global biodiversity.

9. Ensure the proper functioning of the general ecological water cycle for the whole country.

10. Maintain the productivity of the main ecosystems.

11. The establishment of a Reserves Park network is one of the useful answers that can satisfy the overall objectives mentioned above.

The management of this type of space requires taking into account a certain number of points which can be summarized as follows:

12. Provide urgent protection for the most degraded Ecosystems.

13. Put in place monitoring and conservative management of the most important ecosystems for Morocco.

14. Slow down and stabilize degradation processes in mountain forest sites, wetlands and coastal areas.

15. Organize at the national level the safeguarding of phylogenetic heritage.

16. Fight effectively against the disposition of faunal wealth, especially for large mammals and raptors.

17. Implement appropriate heritage management on the appropriate sites as defined by the national and natural park management plans for the study.

18. Ensure sound training in ecology and protected area management, technical staff and engineers under this allocation.

19. Mobilize technical officers responsible for administrations concerned by the environment, local elected representatives and authorities, representatives and users, on the need to rationally manage Morocco’s natural heritage.

20. Support the national educational effort not an awareness of the problems of nature conservation.

21. Support private and associative initiatives related to the protection of nature.

Toubkal national park

The national park of Toubkal was created in 1942, with 38.000 ha first national park of Morocco, it extends on the central part of the High Atlas between the valley of N’fiss in the West and that of L’Ourika to the East, which is equal to 380 km² (Figure 1).

Citation: Selkani I. Management of Protected Areas and Ecotourism, What Relationship?. Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2020; 4(1): 1045.