Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2021; 5(1): 1048.
Designing a Model for Agenda-Setting of Electoral Policies with a Political Marketing Approach
Behnampour B¹, Paykani MH²* and Zazerani MRY³
¹Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Iran
²Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Iran
³Department of Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Iran
*Corresponding author: Mehraban Hadi Paykani, Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran
Received: March 01, 2021; Accepted: March 29, 2021; Published: April 05, 2021
The purpose of this study was to design a model for determining the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach. This study is a qualitative research that has been performed using grounded theory method and Strauss and Corbin model, which is based on three stages of open, axial and selective coding. In this regard, in-depth interviews were conducted using theoretical snowball sampling with election experts, deputies, governors and university professors. The number of samples continued until the responses reached saturation (with 17 interviews). Data analysis was performed in three stages of open coding, axial coding, and electoral coding and then the intended model was explained based on the paradigm model of grounded theory. (Executive issues of the electoral institution, weakness of the party system, misunderstanding of political marketing and legal and supervisory problems) were identified as contextual factors, and the (cultural, political, economic) dimensions were identified as contextual factors from the perspective of research participants. Strategies are included in three dimensions: solving executive and supervisory problems, reforming the understanding of political marketing, strengthening the party system and the resulting consequences including upgrading the country’s party system, upgrading the country’s electoral system and the country’s political development.
Keywords: Agenda setting; Electoral policies; Political marketing; Grounded theory
Identifying a public problem is usually accompanied by processes that relate it to the realm of public authority and attribute the action of solving it to that realm. Attributing a problem to the realm of public authority and government policy-makers is the result of the efforts of actors whose job it is to politicize public problems. Among public policies, electoral policies are important for advancing the goals of a system and ensuring the legitimacy of a system. Policy lies in whatever governments choose to do or not to do. The most important stage in the policy-making cycle is the “agenda setting” stage, which determines how items or issues are placed on the government’s agenda . In fact, it must be said that the preparation of the agenda is necessary, because if the issues are not included in the agenda, they can not be considered for action. Issues and problems should be considered before choosing a policy. In political systems, competition between political actors for power or influence within party decisions largely depends on how they market themselves and their political, public, and social activities and public opinion. It should be noted that in politics, and especially in democracies, the biggest problem is environmental uncertainty, which itself is affected by the large number and complexity of elements of the political environment. Thus, political marketing addresses political organizations and political parties, parliament and government sectors, and uses techniques such as market research and product design and concepts such as the desire to satisfy demands and reaches the business world and tries to achieve its goals, such as winning the elections and passing laws. Given the importance of the agenda and the use of political marketing approach in determining the agenda, it is important to note that the greater the agreement on the definition of a public problem and the wider the scope of the problem, the greater the possibility of the problem being on the government agenda and its serious consideration, and not paying attention to it puts policymakers in an unfavorable political situation. Now, according to the above, in the present study, we seek to design a model for determining the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach.
Theoretical Foundations and Research Background
Setting the agenda
Communities are increasingly faced with complex, outdated, and highly interconnected problems that have a high degree of uncertainty and potentially face problems - malignant problems such as climate change, resource scarcity, or crisis. Despite this discourse and the referred problems, policy-making is trying to find new ways to address these complex challenges. However, the co-production of interdisciplinary knowledge is recognized as tackling social challenges due to the transfer of sustainability. Public literature leads to better production of decisions and increased legitimacy and is one of the most prominent reasons for launching and conducting participatory processes. In addition, at EU level, public participation is sought to strengthen EU citizenship and build trust in EU institutions, and projects such as the 2006 Meeting of Minds, the consultation of senior citizens on brain science, can be followed.
Agenda-setting as the focal point of policy-making is the most fundamental issue in government policy-making. The agenda-setting process includes showing how an issue is raised at the community level and prioritizing it for analysis and finding a way to solve it. Koop and Ross have defined the agenda as a process by which the demands of different sections of society are turned into conflicting rationales in order to attract the serious attention of government officials. Two categories of external factors and internal factors can be identified as effective factors on policy-making and the agenda process: internal factors including the executive and legislative branches and external factors including economic, cultural and political issues . According to Barbara Nelson, the process of preparing an agenda is that “public opinion experts are informed of new issues and problems, then examine them and set up their own organizations to deal with them” . In fact, it should be said that the preparation of the agenda is necessary, because if the issues are not included in the agenda, they can not be considered for action, issues and problems must be considered before choosing a policy.
Democracy in any country or habitat prefers constructive criticism, differing views, competition, and choice of alternative policies. Discussion is the twin engine of democracy. They are the pillars that represent the support of the government. Violence is the antithesis of political competition in a democracy. On the contrary, fair political practices reflect the democratic process. Therefore, political practices should only be applied through approved competitive approaches and strategies . Usually, politicians and political parties implement different strategies to achieve the set political goals and objectives . In the second half of the last century, marketing began to be seen as a tool to spread the word in politics. Its role in political strategy has reached such a level were marketing is a key element in most political projects today. The basic understanding of marketing is lost on mere newspaper and television coverage of news and messages. In most areas affected by new technologies and operating systems, it is observed that the growth rate of social media and its importance in politics has increased .
Political marketing can be defined as the application of marketing concepts, principles, and practices to political issues by individuals, groups, organizations, and nations. The most important goals in political marketing include guiding public visions and ideas, advancing political ideologies, winning political contests and elections, and enacting laws and holding referendums related to the needs, wants, and desires of target market segments. Political marketing is designed to influence people’s votes in elections. Political marketing may involve systematic approaches and relationships that seek to persuade and extract relevant individuals or parties (including facilities and infrastructure support) that may advance personal, group, ethnic, tribal, or professional interests . Political parties use marketing tools as part of their campaign activities. The category of political marketing helps to understand how specific marketing tools are used to improve the technical and strategic aspects of political campaigns. However, the main focus of political marketing is on how political actors use marketing tools. The fundamental question is why do political actors use marketing tools? .
Political marketing management analysis uses two different approaches called functional and instrumental perspectives. The instrumental perspective seeks to find the tools and theoretical issues of political marketing and covers most of its studies and research aspects. While a functional perspective discusses how to use these tools to achieve political marketing goals and implement these tools in practice. Most political marketing research is on the instrumental perspective. The tools available in political marketing refer to four elements, called 4Ps for short (product, Price, Place, Promotion). Although similarities can be found between business and political marketing concepts in these discussions, the concept of product as a political marketing tool and a vital element of political marketing theory has not yet been defined in a popular way. This in itself has created a major obstacle to the development of political market theory.
Political marketing perspective
According to , the phenomenon of political marketing is still relatively new historically, although the trend of political campaigning has been around for a long time. However, the system of regular use of political marketing principles, strategies, and techniques has recently evolved due to the rise of industrialism and the development of voter rights . As an art, political marketing existed before the idea of democracy, and as a set of communication tools and techniques, developed with the progress of the twentieth century . Wring  states that the marketing system takes control of political struggles in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, political marketing has grown from the work of political communication specialists in various fields. Currently, political marketing has grown in its field . Signs of maturity can be found in the publication of political marketing textbooks, magazines, and the use of political marketing terms such as “rotation”, “packaging”, “political propaganda” and “political strategies”, etc. . Political organizations have countless goals and generally seek effective solutions to compete in democratic competitions. The main goal of a political party is electoral success, and political parties use strategies that enable them to gain enough votes in general elections to gain control of the government. Thus, in most democracies around the world, politicians and political parties seek tactical and strategic marketing techniques to relate to elections and reap the benefits of elections or re-election. These politicians and political parties recognize the need to align their political proposals with the core values of their respective audiences . Marketing can become a positive force that influences how politics works, for example, by helping to formulate policy and predict future trends in the political market . In general, political marketing has been proposed to influence the people’s vote in elections. The difference with regular marketing is that the concepts (campaign promises) are sold instead of products and services. Political marketing, of course, uses many of the same techniques used in product marketing, such as advertising, direct mail, and publicity.
The design of electoral systems has been an important part of the democratic election process. But the design of electoral systems should not be done without regard to the design framework of the constitution and other institutions, which can also be extremely important for various issues such as managing gender representation conflicts and developing the party system. If properly designed, electoral systems can clarify political change and strengthen popular participation, paving the way for the emergence of legitimate representative, and they can meet a wide range of wants and expectations. But if electoral systems are designed to be undesirable, they can impede the path to democracy and even political stability. In order for the process of designing electoral systems to be successful, this process must not only attract the attention and trust of politicians and election administrators, but also the trust of civil society organizations, experts and most importantly, the citizens of a country where democratic reforms are being implemented. The electoral system must not only be efficient in the current situation, but must be designed to adapt to changes that may occur in the future in attitudes and behavior and, consequently, in electoral motivations. Electoral systems can be designed to both strengthen democracy and weaken democracy. Mechanisms for determining constituencies, voting methods, and determining the qualifications of candidates as well as voters are included in the above definition. In short, it can be said that voting methods represent electoral systems ultimately . In fact, this set of operations and techniques related to the fact that the method and manifestation of the sovereign right of the voters in the administration of the country is a complex operation with many steps and components and its implementation is one of the most important measures in any political system. In summary, in this paper, elections are a set of actions designed to select rulers or appoint observers to control power. From this point of view, elections mean selection techniques and different methods of appointing representatives; An instrument by which the will of the citizens can be involved in the formation of political institutions and the appointment of those in charge of exercising political authority.
Previous research in relation to any new research can be directly or indirectly related to the main issue of the research, which is helpful in any case. In this research, a number of backgrounds have been mentioned:
Hajipour et al.  presented a study entitled “Designing a Political Marketing Model in Local Elections”. Today, elections, as the most important arena for political participation, are the benchmark for the popularness of any government. In democracies, winning the most votes and elections has always been one of the main concerns of political currents. Political marketing has doubled in recent decades as a means of achieving practical election victory; So that the victory of political currents in the elections largely depends on the effective use of political marketing models by these groups. In this study, an attempt was made to provide a local model of political marketing in local elections in Iran. In this study, the results of indepth interviews with 13 experts were used in the field of “Grounded Theory”. The apparent approach of the local elections in Tehran revealed the following: 1. The requirements for the effective presence of the party in political competition; 2. Voting market needs; 3. Product design tailored to the main demand of the voting market; 4. Effective marketing and advertising of political product; 5. Selling ideas / candidates and 6. Continuous monitoring of the environment determine the dimensions of the political marketing model in local elections.
Rosa (2018) has studied a research entitled “Participatory agenda setting in the context of the test”. The subject of the addition of largescale participatory processes to regulate the development agenda is questioned, and the results of the large-scale participatory process in Europe are compared by comparative study with 16 specialized studies with a similar purpose. As a result, the development of the use of large-scale participatory methods as agenda-setting processes is known to be important which gives citizens the opportunity to create new and relevant results.
Norazina Madrin  conducted a study entitled “Agenda Setting Theory” with the aim of examining what lies in the theory of agenda regulation and tries to determine what is created among the media in relation to the theory of agenda regulation. She asked two questions: 1. What is the theory of agenda setting? 2. What is the intermedia structure? To obtain information and knowledge related to this research, secondary data has been used mainly from library research and the latest articles and research from online databases. As a result, the mass media have special access to help or influence audience perceptions, values, focus and priorities. With such influence from the mass media, media audiences tend to form their own opinion or focus on topics that deserve to be included in their mental programs, and be considered on the agenda as responsible for influencing and shaping public opinion.
Merla Vladimir  conducted a study entitled “The Impact of Political Marketing on Party Democracy”. The study addresses the presence of political marketing in today’s parties, and its impact on the level and quality of democracy within this type of organizations with respect to the positive and negative aspects. The study was conducted by interviewing political candidates in the Romanian local elections. . The role of political marketing and its impact on the democratic system within a party has been questioned. The results indicate that another application of cross-party marketing is in which candidates must pay attention to the representative of their local communities and local colleagues and increase the power of the political class.
This research is considered as a part of applied research in terms of results, because the researchers sought to design a model for determining the agenda of electoral policies with the political marketing approach of the country. In terms of purpose, this research is part of exploratory research and field research strategy. The methodology of this research is qualitative, using the Grounded Theory 1 (GTM) method or the data foundation method.
Samples and research tools
In this theoretical study, sampling was performed using snowball technique. Areas of study include members of parliament in previous periods, election experts from the Ministry of Interior, governorates and governorships, university professors and representatives of political groups in Isfahan province. The criterion for selecting the interviewees was based on their familiarity with the concept of agenda-setting of electoral policies with a political marketing approach. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 experts, which resulted in 13 complete saturation interviews. The frequency of interviews shows that the interviewees have a work experience between 15 and 28 years and the age of the interviewees is between 36 and 58 years. Fifteen interviewees have a doctorate and two have a master’s degree.
Analysis of Research Data and Findings
In grounded theory, the analysis method is such that each part of the data is analyzed in parallel immediately after the collection of that part. The researcher then receives instructions from the original data for access to future data. These guidelines can come from underdeveloped categories, information gaps, or people with insight into the phenomenon. After obtaining these guidelines, the researcher enters the research environment to collect other data. The zigzag process in data collection and analysis continues until the researcher achieves saturation for categories .
In the following, the data analysis steps of this research are presented based on the Strauss and Corbin’s paradigm model.
The data analysis process began with Open Coding (OC). Open coding is “an analytical process by which concepts are identified and their features and dimensions are discovered in data” . The next step, called Axial Coding (AC), is the process of relating categories to subcategories and linking categories at the level of features and dimensions. At this stage, after extracting the concepts and categories in open coding and by carefully examining and comparing the categories, the researcher combines the groups and related categories and then integrates them into larger groups or categories, as “axis” or “theme” categories. Then, he selects a category as “axial phenomenon” and relates other categories to the central phenomenon . In this study, researchers identified “Agenda-setting of electoral policies with a political marketing approach” as the main phenomenon of the research and put it at the core of their theory as a prominent feature. They then linked other categories to this axial category. After determining the main phenomenon, the researcher enters the axial coding stage in which themes (peer categories) are placed in certain categories in order to communicate with the axial phenomenon. These categories are the “causal conditions” that affect the axial phenomenon, the “context conditions” and “intervening conditions”, the “strategies”, and the “outcomes” of the implementation of strategies. Therefore, these classifications are made by the researcher. In this model, causal conditions affect the axial phenomenon, the axial phenomenon and the underlying and intervening conditions affect the strategies, and the strategies affect the outcome, and ultimately the outcomes are perceived through the audience community.
In open coding, researchers seek to name the events or objects observed in the data and focus on understanding the features that make these events or objects unique. In general, in the coding stage, 893 significant concepts resulting from open coding and 15 axes resulting from axial coding were identified according to (Table 1).
First Level Concepts (Dimension)
Executive problems of the electoral body
Weakness of the party system
Misunderstanding of political marketing
Legal and regulatory problems
Religious and ethnic components
Solve executive and regulatory problems
Improving the understanding of political marketing
Strengthen the party system
Upgrading the party system of the country
Upgrading the country's electoral system
Political development of the country
Table 1: Number of open codes, concepts, categories and axes of research, paradigm, first level and axis concepts.
In the next step, Selective Coding 1 (sc) begins after open and axial coding and identification of paradigm models. Selective coding is the process of systematically selecting the main category and linking it to other categories, validating relationships, and filling in gaps with categories that need further improvement.
In the selective coding stage, the researchers completed the two previous coding stages by integrating, refining, and improving the categories in a theoretical framework, thus organizing the categories around the main or axial phenomenon. After preparing the general theory, the researchers refined the theory by removing extras from the categories and expanding on the categories that had not been well addressed before. They then explored how specific factors affect the phenomenon and lead to using specific strategies with specific outcomes, using techniques such as storyline writing (which helps the coding process to formulate and integrate relationships between categories). After these steps, the final model of the research was drawn and the axial category was shown to be related to other categories.
Nine-month conduct of interviews in the research field and continuous observation of the phenomenon under study, writing interviews on paper and reviewing the interpretations made, reviewing and evaluating the interpretations and continuous control, careful review of the research process and results by the supervisor and consultant, accurate and multiple data reviews, and data validation by interpreting the data by the participants in the research (which was done by reporting the results of the research to six interviewees and receiving feedback from the interpretations) were among the strategies used for the validity of this study.
Causal conditions: Causal conditions are the main cause of the phenomenon under study (agenda setting) . In this study, based on the participants’ views, the categories and axes of causal conditions were identified for setting the electoral policy agenda with a political marketing approach (Table 2).
Executive problems of the electoral body
Structural problems of the electoral system
4. The problem of the structure of the electoral system
5. Applying taste in performance
Lack of electronic election system
19. Lack of trust between people
20. Lack of electronic system development
Weakness of the party system
Lack of efficient parties
1. Lack of parties
2. Inactivity of parties after the elections
3. Lack of accountability of candidates
Institutionalization of an efficient electoral system
6. Lack of institutionalization in the field of elections
7. Registering the wrong culture of election drama
8. Lack of transparency in constituencies
9. Weakness of middle and efficient class
Lack of awareness of weakness in people’s voting procedure
24. Lack of awareness of the people
25. Non-participation of people
26. False education and notification system
Incorrect understanding of political marketing
Wrong attitude towards the concept of political marketing
10. Unconventional advertisements
11. Lack of concept of political marketing
12. The populist attitude of the representatives
13. Unspecified financial resources
21. Using people's living problems
22. Candidates' financial resources for the people
23. Uncertainty of the political position of the representatives
Legal and regulatory problems
Lack of a clear election monitoring framework
14. Lack of coordination between monitoring centers
15. Lack of proper instructions
16. Not employing efficient people
17. Unprofessional competition in the field of elections
18. Applying taste in supervision
Ambiguity and weakness in the rules
27. Vague rules
28. No update of laws
29. Weak laws and inefficiency
Table 2: Categories and axes of casual conditions of categories.
Intervening conditions: Intervening conditions are general and broad and affect how they act/interact . In this study, the categories and axes of the intervening conditions were identified for agenda-setting of electoral policies with a political marketing approach (Table 3).
30. Cultural Attitudes
Attention to political and international approaches
31. The role of customs
32. International attention to the impact of the country's elections
The impact of people's living conditions on elections
33. The attention of the international media on popular participation
34. Election Impact and Development through International Approaches
Table 3: Categories and axes of intervening conditions of categories.
Contextual conditions: Contextual conditions represent special properties that indicate a phenomenon. In other words, the place of events or happenings related to a phenomenon is along a dimension in which interaction takes place to control, manage and respond to the phenomenon . In this study, based on the participants’ opinions, the categories and axes of the contextual conditions for determining the electoral policy agenda were identified with a political marketing approach (Table 4).
Religious and ethnic components
Ethnic and tribal characteristics
38. Ethnic and tribal conflicts
39. Ethnic outlook determines electoral behavior
Attention to revolutionary values and religious principles
44. Religious values
45. Revolutionary principles
Attention to the power structure and the middle class in reforming electoral laws
40. Amending the election laws in various ways
41. Paying attention to the people's vote in order to amend the election laws
42. Existence of leverage and political power in elections
43. The influence of the middle class on electoral structures
The nature of political marketing
46. Political marketing method
The role of power structures and parties
47. The effects of power structure on electoral decision making
48. The role of media and propaganda in elections
49. Paying attention to the type of political system
50. The role of parties
Table 4: Categories and axes of contextual conditions.
Strategies: The categories and axes provide strategies for controlling and managing situations by individuals in dealing with issues . In this study, in order to determine the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach, the categories and axes of strategies were identified (Table 5).
Solving executive and regulatory problems
Determining the agenda of the election execution structure
53. The use of efficient and specific people in execution
54. Development of electronic elections
55. Determining the electoral agenda and policies
56. Determining the strategy and flow of implementation and elections
Drawing the election vision
57. Employing specialized people
58. Designing and modifying the appropriate electoral model
59. The need to reform the structure of elections
60. Drawing the electoral vision
Improving the understanding of political marketing
Understanding political marketing
62. Considering political marketing
63. Paying attention to electoral participation
64. Healthy advertising in effective political marketing
Increasing awareness of education capacity
65. Increasing people's awareness
66. Contemplation on increasing the relationship between government and nationality
68. Increasing participation
Strengthen the party system
51. Limits of party activities
52. Education and party hierarchy
Table 5: Categories and axes of strategies.
Outcomes: The outcomes are short-term and medium-term effects that are observable . In this study, the categories and axes of the outcomes of the coaching culture were identified in science and technology parks (Table 6).
Upgrading the party system of the country
Formation of a party in the country
78. The performance of the party according to the plan
79. Formation of legal and official parties
80. Responsible parties
Increasing the political consciousness of the people
87. Increasing people's awareness and trust
88. Increasing hope in society
89. The conscious participation of the people
69. Updating election laws
Upgrading the country's electoral system
Adjusting and amending election laws
70. The correct election laws of the election season
71. Modern planning in political marketing
72. Regulation of election laws
73. Localization and amendment of electoral laws
81. Electronic election development
82. Codification of cyberspace in the field of elections
Specialist attitude and setting the financial and advertising foundations
83. Transparency of election propaganda
84. Transparency in political marketing
85. Transparency of financial resources
Political development of the country
The growth and prosperity of the country
86. Paying attention to the issue of propaganda and political marketing in elections
74. Creating healthy elections in the country
75. Localization of elections in the country
76. Reducing corruption and rent in elections
77. Solving major crises in the country
Table 6: Laboratory values at hospital admission.
Discussion and Conclusion
Agenda setting is one of the initial and important actions of the policy-making cycle and is the source of government policies; A set of political issues that address government policy within a range of legal considerations. In political systems, competition between political actors for power or to influence decisions within the party largely depends on marketing themselves and the political activities of their public and social currents in the face of public opinion. Political marketing provides effective tools for political organizations and candidates to overcome these problems. By using a coherent marketing framework and by modifying the main concepts of business marketing, such that it can be used in political environments and for political parties or individuals, it greatly contributes to political propaganda activities carried out before the ideas and tactics of political science. Elections are the most important channel for the implementation of democracy and a criterion for assessing the status and extent of the role of the people in political systems. Elections are the framework and tools through which the will of the people emerges in the formation of political institutions and the appointment of those in charge of exercising political power. The electoral system of each country determines the law of competition that is going on between different political groups, because the election law determines the distribution of power between political parties and groups in each society.
Based on the obtained results and qualitative analysis, it was determined that considering that setting the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach has an important role in the policy-making process, it should be considered as the second stage of the policy-making process. What was clearly seen in these interviews is the importance of the issue of agenda setting and political marketing in the field of electoral policies due to the discovery of theoretical dimensions about which there was no theoretical coherence before. Survey participants often stated that a major part of disregarding electoral policy-making with a political marketing approach is the lack of coherence between theoretical and practical perspectives on electoral policy-making, and most of the research has a repetitive and routine direction.
Electoral problems of the electoral body, weakness of the party system, inaccurate political marketing and legal and regulatory problems have been identified as causal conditions for setting the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach that play a significant role in focusing and setting the agenda of electoral policies. In more detail, the problems of the executive of the electoral body refer to the challenges of setting the agenda, such as the structural problems of the electoral system, the non-electronic system of the electoral system. The weakness of the party system also indicates the lack of efficient parties, the non-institutionalization of the efficient electoral system and the lack of awareness of the people’s voting manner. And a misunderstanding of political marketing refers to a misconception about the concept of political marketing and subsistence votes. Finally, legal and monitoring problems point to the lack of a clear framework for election monitoring and ambiguity and weakness in the law.
By determining the causal conditions, determining the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach, the emergence of strategies for each of the causal conditions expressed as strategies for solving executive and supervisory problems, reforming the understanding of political marketing and strengthening the party system can be attractive and show a special view in the field of agenda setting for electoral policies with a political marketing approach.
Finally, the consequences of this research can play an important role in achieving more success in setting the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach. It is worth mentioning that the realization of the developed goals and strategies can lead to the reform of electoral instructions and laws in order to gain public trust, institutionalize the electoral culture, coordinate and align institutions with each other and strengthen the CIA culture and intellectual development of society. It is worthwhile for the Guardian Council, the Ministry of Interior, and the Islamic Consultative Assembly to consider the strategies and consequences of the investigation, because by setting the agenda and formulating electoral policies, it can comprehensively implement the goals that were formulated.
• The experts of the Guardian Council and the Ministry of Interior and the legislators should provide the necessary support regarding the determination of the agenda of electoral policies in the political marketing practice and support it as the second stage of the policy-making process and create and prepare the ground for its implementation.
• It is suggested that the need to develop a comprehensive electoral system in Iran in view of the multiplicity of electoral laws and regulations in Iran and the frequent amendments made to these laws and the lack of coherence and coordination between them, especially the presidential election law and the Islamic Consultative Assembly election law and accuracy in the electoral system and setting the agenda of electoral policies with a political marketing approach can help to provide a comprehensive election law containing detailed regulations for all four types of presidential, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Assembly of Experts and Islamic city and village councils elections. In order to bring coherence and integration, and healthy elections in Iran.
• The suggestion of this research on the mechanism of holding elections in Iran is that the structure of the country’s election headquarters as an election administration body that is affiliated with the Ministry of Interior and the executive branch, be transformed and become more convincing; to remove the suspicion of leaving neutrality, especially in cases where the existing and established government is one of the parties to the competition. According to the interviews conducted and the results obtained in determining the electoral policy agenda, the High Electoral Council should be formed as an institution.
• According to the results, in determining the agenda of electoral policies, the method of voter registration should be more appropriate to the conditions of Iran, and the procedure requires a field study and limited and experimental implementation of these methods.
• It is necessary to pay special attention to the conditions of the candidates for the presidential and Islamic Consultative Assembly elections, considering the strategy of drawing the electoral perspective in designing the comprehensive electoral system. This requires that experts and specialists in the field of elections to design and implement the necessary mechanisms by researching and reviewing.
• Some of the election campaigns have been moved from the alleys and back alleys of the physical headquarters to social pages and channels, and this area is a place for candidates to publish advertisements and news of election campaigns, exchange opinions, express criticism and attract supporters. Therefore, it is suggested that the necessary action be taken regarding policy-making and the development of necessary laws according to the results of this research.
• It is suggested that in setting the agenda of election policies to the party and political development of the parties, although they provide components such as political participation, national unity and cohesion, conflict management and political socialization and the causes of political development and stability of society, Officials take the necessary care in the field of compiling and implementing it in the policy.
• It is suggested to determine the limits and types of authorized and unauthorized electoral expenses and resources, to clarify the electoral resources and expenses of candidates and political organizations and to inform the competent authorities and exercise strict supervision over it and how to deal with financial violations in determining the policy agenda of electoral considerations. In the process of formulating, implementing and evaluating the electoral policy, the necessary policies should be made by the authorities.
On the other hand, it is suggested to raise the level of knowledge and awareness and public education and to promote electoral norms and institutionalize it in public culture and to determine the rules and regulations of healthy political competition in order to increase participation and conscious and lively presence of people and help to choose ,it is necessary to apply the policies according to the importance of setting the agenda that has been achieved in this research, and to be determined and defined in the process of formulating the responsibility of the implementing institutions and also the type of instruments.
• The social construction readiness for new political marketing methods used by candidates needs to be considered by experts, as social construction may not be welcomed or it may be understood that the candidate intends to deceive them. Therefore, the view of social construction or voters should change on the issue of political marketing, and this requires the necessary policies to be formulated and the necessary measures to be taken in the field of implementation and evaluation, according to the results of recognizing political marketing and public awareness.
• It is suggested that according to the interviews and the results extracted on how the Guardian Council monitors the processes, dimensions and stages of the presidential election, the Islamic Consultative Assembly and the Assembly of Leadership Experts, including the final approval of candidates, grievance redress and approval or annulment of the elections in order to ensure the integrity of the elections, attract maximum participation and ensure the rights of candidates and voters to make the necessary arrangements with the election experts of the Ministry of Interior during meetings on the implementation of policies, and formulate and implement the required policies that will reduce the problems according to determining the agenda of electoral policies in this study.
• Considering the cultural and religious conditions as well as ethnic and tribal views and paying attention to political and economic issues in the formulation of electoral policies, according to the results of this study, is another suggestion that the policy makers should pay attention in terms of formulation.
In order to complete this research, considering that this research was conducted at the end of the tenth period of the parliament and the beginning of the eleventh period, and some of the interviewees reviewed their mental contents and their currents of thought were influential in the research process, therefore, it demands that this research be examined at another time and in another political cycle.
Since the approach of this research is in line with the method of qualitative analysis derived from the data theory of the foundation, it requires that a survey and descriptive study of the obtained dimensions be performed quantitatively to determine the electoral policy agenda with a political marketing approach.
The final model of the research, which depicts the main dimensions of the model based on the paradigm pattern of Strauss and Corbin, is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Final model for agenda-setting of electoral policies with a political marketing approach.
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Citation: Behnampour B, Paykani MH and Zazerani MRY. Designing a Model for Agenda-Setting of Electoral Policies with a Political Marketing Approach. Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2021; 5(1): 1048.