A Cross Sectional Study to Investigate Work Satisfaction among Nurses: The Impact of Occupational Features

Research Article

Austin J Bus Adm Manage. 2023; 7(1): 1054.

A Cross Sectional Study to Investigate Work Satisfaction among Nurses: The Impact of Occupational Features

*Corresponding author: Paraskevi Theofilou General Hospital of Thoracic Diseases SOTIRIA, Athens, and Hellenic Open University, School of Social Sciences, Patra, Greece

Received: December 14, 2022; Accepted: January 09, 2023; Published: January 16, 2023


The aim of the present study was to investigate work satisfaction among nurses as well as the impact of occupational features. A hundred and fifty two nurses (28 men and 124 women) participated in the survey. To collect the data, Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) was used. There were statistically significant differences between the positions regarding satisfaction (total score) (p<0.05) with those nurses who had a position of responsibility (supervisors) showing the greatest satisfaction (p<0.05). Also, there were statistically significant differences between hours regarding satisfaction (dimensions) (p<0.05) with those nurses who had morning work showing the highest satisfaction (p<0.05) in the salary dimension. An effect on the level of satisfaction of the nursing staff is observed from the factors of years of service, position of responsibility, working hours and monthly salaries.

Keywords: Work satisfaction; Nurses; Occupational features


Job satisfaction is defined as the effective navigation one has man towards his work and consists of two aspects, the positive and the negative negative effectiveness. Positive efficacy is shown with high energy levels, enthusiastic mood and fun engagement, while the negative effectiveness is indicated by discomfort, unfun engagement and bitterness [1].

Job satisfaction can otherwise be described as the how much each person likes or dislikes their job [2] or whether feels that his claims and demands are met by his work [3]. There is a commonality among various models that explain the term labor satisfaction: can be affected by environmental factors such as working conditions that prevail in each workplace, as well as from personal factors, such as self-efficacy beliefs [4].

The main factor affecting nursing job satisfaction staff is the salary [5] and the recognition of his work. Often, nurses are not satisfied with extrinsic rewards praise and recognition of their work, which reflects on their belief that their stressful profession is not adequately covered financially and they do not morally compensated. Nurses feel the need for support from the team with which they are working on but also their subordinates regarding the existing ones difficulties, such as lack of resources [6]. Much of the nurses believe that the state does not recognize their profession and they do not give the corresponding importance and appreciation that is due to it, although the people express reverence [7].

Another factor that can affect job satisfaction is the circular time.It has a negative effect both mentally and physically condition.It can also take on social dimensions, since it often can it interferes with the family’s daily life and habits and schedule, beyond of work, of each person [8]. More specifically, nursing staff are often not happy with the program, the balance between work and family and group interaction, a worsening situation from the heavy workload caused by the outbreak of the COVID‐19 disease [9]. Other factors that affect job satisfaction are: education, the duration of work and the type of participation against the pandemic as negative factors, while experience and daily sleep duration as positive [9]. Also the overwork, the lack of clarity, the conflicts between the role and the duties of each employee but also the lack of organization and of methodicality in the workplace affect nurses’ satisfaction with his profession as well as the adverse work situations he may have they concern the facilities and services of a workplace [8].

The aim of the present study is to investigate work satisfaction among nurses as well as the impact of occupational features.



In this research, to collect the data, the following tool was used: Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), a tool that has been widely used to assess job satisfaction worldwide and was created in 1997 by Paul E. Spector, a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Florida. Although it was developed for research in healthcare organizations, it has finally been used in other types of organizations that wish to measure the job satisfaction of their employees. This survey tool is freely available online for educational and research purposes at http:// paulspector.com/ in the English language. The tool translated into the Greek language of the present research comes from the translations into languages of other countries from the same web address together with the instructions for completing it, as well as the instructions for evaluating its results. The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) questionnaire is structured on the basis of 36 work-related items and describes 9 work factors that may be factors of satisfaction or dissatisfaction for employees. Each of the 9 factors corresponds to 4 elements and a total score is calculated from all the elements. Assessment of job satisfaction is achieved through the use of a Likert scale, with six options per item ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. The items are written in both directions, with negative and positive wording, so that about half of the items must be reversed. The nine factors are salary, promotion, supervision/ supervision, perks/benefits, contingent rewards (performancebased rewards), operating conditions (required rules and procedures), coworkers, nature of work, and communication. The internal consistency index ranges from 60-91 (http:// paulspector.com/scales/our-assessments/job-satisfactionsurvey- jss/). In addition to the aforementioned questionnaire, there were questions related to the socio-demographic and work characteristics of the sample, e.g. gender, age, educational level, years of service, etc.


This is a cross-sectional study. The population and sample of the research was the nursing staff of all levels of hospitals in the broader area of Athens, with at least one year of experience. This particular sample is a sample of convenience. Participants were selected based on the inclusion criteria for the study, which are as follows: • The consent of the nursing staff • Age over eighteen years • Experience of at least one year • Ability to communicate in the Greek language All research participants were informed in writing and verbally and signed a consent form.The collection of the sample was preceded by written approval from the Scientific Committee of the Hospitals, following a relevant request of the researcher.

Data Collection Process

The data collection took place at the hospitals between May 2019 and June 2019, after the required permission was granted by the organization’s Scientific Council. The data collection was done after distributing the questionnaires placed in yellow opaque envelopes with the instruction to the participant that after completing it, he should enclose it, seal the envelope and deliver it to a specific delivery point, which was designated by the researcher. This method ensured the complete anonymity of the participants and the confidentiality of their answers. The research participants with consent were also assured of the availability of the results in case they requested it.

Statistical analysis

For the presentation of the results related to the responses of the patients to the questionnaires, who participated in the research, a frequency analysis was carried out. Additionally, the descriptives command was run to examine the averages. Quantitative variables are presented as mean (± standard deviation) while qualitative variables are presented as frequency (%). Also, a test of normality of the sample was performed using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Non-parametric and parametric tests (Mann-Whitney test/Independent samples t test, Kruskal Wallis test/One-Way anova) were performed in order to investigate possible associations between nursing staff satisfaction and socio-demographic and work factors. The tool used in this research showed good reliability (Cronbach a), ranging at 0.741. Statistical analysis was performed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 23 statistical program. A p value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.


A hundred and fifty two nurses (28 men and 124 women) participated in the survey, with the majority of them being in the 45-54 age group (70 people, 46.1%). The majority were also married (114 people, 75%), 2.6% (4 people) widowed, 13.8% (21 people) single while 7.2% (11 people) were divorced. With regard to their educational level, 75 had a degree from HEI/ TEI (higher education) (49.3%). Only 18 nurses held master’s/ doctorate degrees (11.8%). Regarding the professional status, the majority (147 people, 96.7%) stated that they are permanent employees and only 5 nurses (3.3%) were contracted.

(Table 1) shows all the work characteristics of the sample. In particular, as can be seen in the said table, the majority of nurses had 11-20 years of experience, belonged to the category of nurses, worked shifts, received 1000-1500 euros and were permanent employees.