Splitting of the ECG Pattern is Not only a Sign of Possible Myocardial Infarction or Cardio Pathology, But one of Many Possible Normal States of the Nonlinear Dynamics of the Heart as Well

Special Article - Myocardial Infarction

Austin Cardio & Cardiovasc Case Rep. 2018; 3(1): 1021.

Splitting of the ECG Pattern is Not only a Sign of Possible Myocardial Infarction or Cardio Pathology, But one of Many Possible Normal States of the Nonlinear Dynamics of the Heart as Well

Shmid AV¹, Novopashin MA¹, Zimina EY² and Berezin AA¹*

¹Department of EC-leasing Moscow, Russia

²Department of High School of Economics Moscow, Russia

*Corresponding author: Berezin AA, Department of EC-leasing, Moscow, Russia

Received: April 19, 2018; Accepted: May 24, 2018; Published: May 31, 2018


The ECG features analysis in a patient born in 1946 led to repeated statement of misdiagnosis, particularly of myocardial infarction. About 2,500 patients’s ECGshave been analyzed for the three-year period of the patient’s observation. A Fourier analysis of the spectra of the ECGs of the patient 2506 allowed to assume that there exists an additional leading center in his myocardium, with a variable start phase of the myocardium relative to the phase of the fundamental frequency of contractions of the myocardium. Experimental confirmation of this hypothesis is in particular; found in the patient jump-like transition from synchronous phase daily changes in the function dynamics of the P wave width and the PQ segment to the antiphase ones, which reflects the change in the conditions for triggering the process of myocardial contraction. As a result, the coupling of the two leading frequencies of the myocardium, with a variable phase shift of the triggering, can be expressed both in the extra systoles appearance as well as in unusual cardio cycles not coinciding in the form and phase of cardio cycles of a single ECG. Cluster analysis of the entire set of collected patient’s ECGs in the similarity of their forms revealed 18 separate clusters of similarity. While cluster analysis of the ECG samples in other 4857 patients in most cases led to the identification of only one cluster characteristic for a certain patient’s ECG form.

Mathematical modeling of the proposed hypothesis about the presence of more than one leading center of myocardial triggering which resulted in getting model patterns of split ECGs, qualitatively corresponding to the split forms of ECGs observed in the studied patient, confirmed its validity.


For several years, under the daily supervision (ECGs daily registered by a mobile Cardiograph CardioCVARK [1]) there has been a patient born in 1946, who in his youth was an athlete and engaged in sports such as lifting heavy weights, rowing and athletics. In the analysis of his ECGs, along with normal ECGs, there were often found split ECGs, which were repeatedly interpreted by cardiologists in favor of the presence of myocardial infarction or other cardio pathologies in the patient. However, the overall health of the patient with split cardiograms remained normal, and the standard hospital study of the patient’s condition with suspected to heart attack, including high loads on treadmill, did not reveal the presence of any cardio pathology. It is interesting to note that after the average load, for example, on the Bicycle Ergometer, the split ECG was replaced by a normal one. Multiple comparative Fourier analysis of his 2,500 ECGs, registered over 3 years of observation, revealed the presence of 18 types of different stable States as an open nonlinear thermodynamic system corresponding to 18 types of FPU auto recurrences [2], which replaced each other during the observation. It was also revealed 244 transitional (not reproducible) heart States.

Both main and transitional States of the patient’s heart were able to be identified in the database of the patient’s ECGsdue to the application of the tool created for this study for digging data (Data mining) providing the detection of similarity of the ECG forms (ECG clustering forms).

Figure 1 shows the patient’s ECG corresponding to one of the main conditions of the patient’s heart, and Figure 2 of its Fourier spectrum. Worth mentioning, that this Fourier spectrum corresponds to the General form of the Fourier spectrum of the rectangular pulse [3] and is typical for healthy persons.