Proximate Analysis of Low and High Quality Pure Coal and their Blends from Pakistan

Research Article

Austin Chem Eng. 2017; 4(1): 1048.

Proximate Analysis of Low and High Quality Pure Coal and their Blends from Pakistan

Omar QM¹, Umar S²*, Ahmad M², Fatima S² and Javeed A¹

¹Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

²Department of Chemical Engineering, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertilizer Research Faisalabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Umar Shafiq, Department of Chemical Engineering, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertilizer Research Faisalabad, Pakistan

Received: March 02, 2017; Accepted: April 10, 2017; Published: April 17, 2017


In this work proximate analysis of low and high grade pure coals and their blends has been performed. The coal samples contained Chiragh Coal, Dara Souf Coal, Dukki Coal, and Sinjidi Coal, and their blends with different compositions were subjected to the proximate analysis and the comparison of different properties including moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash contents, and gross calorific values has been studied. The proximate analysis has been done according to ASTM standards i.e. ASTM standard D3173-03 for moisture, ASTM standard D3174-04 for ash and ASTM standard D3175-02 for volatile matter and fixed carbon. Gross Calorific values of pure coals and their blends have been determined according to ASTM standard D5865-04 by using bomb calorimeter.

Keywords: Proximate Analysis; Coal Blends; Low Grade and High Grade Coal Blends


Coal has currently become a major source of power generation. Pakistan has one of the biggest coal reserves of the world approximately 185 billion tones. The coal reserves are widely present throughout Pakistan but most of the coal is low grade [1]. The energy crisis plaguing Pakistan has renewed interest of the intellectual community in utilization techniques of indigenous coal, both high and low grade, one of which is coal blending. Coal blending has been adopted in power stations of energy sectors, as natural sources of coal are getting depleted day by day due to increasing demand of all energy producing fuels. Coal-fired power plants are designed to burn coal of defined characteristics, usually indigenous coal or coal that is costeffective. However accessibility of coals has changed, so coal-fired plants must use coals that are available to them. The performance of these coals may differ from the design specifications to such an extent that blending becomes essential to reduce the detrimental effects on the plant [2]. Coal blends analysis indicate that blending of low grade coal with high grade coal can produce such a coal which can produce more energy per unit consumed. Coal blends gives such auspicious properties such as less moisture content and high volatile matter and this results in a higher calorific value fuel with higher energy density. It is likely that, globally, at least 20% of power plants, probably significantly more, cannot achieve design output due to difficulties in sourcing coals which consistently meet boiler requirements [3]. This could be resulting in a reduction of 10% or more in potential output from the plants. Recently in Pakistan, Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company is working on Thar coal project and it aims to supply 1200 MW of energy by the end of 2017. All the new projects based on imported coal should be subject to blending with Thar coal at least 20% to scale up mining at Thar [4]. By optimizing blending to provide consistent fuel stock, plants can increase their power output while reducing negative effects on the plant (such as corrosion and fouling) and potentially reducing the emissions of pollutants of concern. Blending decisions should be based on the knowledge of the specific behavior of a given pair of coals, rather than an assumption of linear variation of properties with blend traction. This work concentrates on proximate analysis of coal in pure as well as in form of blends. So this work plays an important role in saving our natural resources and in meeting industrial energy requirements by providing such mother feed for use which will generate more energy with less consumption.

Experimental Work

Coal samples of Dukki (high grade) and Chiragh (low grade), Dara Souf Coal, and Sinjidi Coal were subjected to cleaning. After that, all the coal samples were dried and feed was prepared by grinding them in End runner mill. Coal samples were mixed in different ratios presented in Table 2. Firstly, coal samples were analyzed for properties like moisture content, volatile matter, ash Content and fixed carbon. After that, coal blends samples were subjected to Bomb Calorimeter test for the determination of their Gross Calorific Value (GCV). The value of GCV and Proximate Analysis are the parameters used for identification of the best coal blend with higher heating value.