Plasma Growth Factors in Neuronal Regeneration

Special Article - Neurorehabilitation

Austin J Clin Neurol 2017; 4(3): 1111.

Plasma Growth Factors in Neuronal Regeneration

Rubio Jesús A*

Coordinator of the Unit of Hematology in Union Hospital of Murcia, Spain and the Regenerative Therapy Unit of the Miraculous, Spain

*Corresponding author: Alcaraz Rubio Jesús, Coordinator of the Unit of Hematology in Union Hospital of Murcia, Murcia, Spain and the Regenerative Therapy Unit of the Miraculous, Madrid, Spain

Received: May 07, 2017; Accepted: May 30, 2017; Published: June 15, 2017


In mammals, the injured axons of the nerves do not regenerate. Often the functional recovery is incomplete. There is growing evidence in both preclinical and clinical studies that indicate that autologous growth factors have an important potential adjuvant therapeutic. Through the feedback of complex biochemical regulators that involve numerous cytokines, injured cells have specific receptors for these proteins involved in apoptosis and anti apoptosis that regulate both their own life cycle as the capacity of cellular differentiation. Recent studies have also observed the possibility of improving the levels of certain growth factors of the plasma depending on the enrichment in the final concentrate with platelets or mononuclear fraction. However, there are other fields of application in medicine, with new expectations, how is the neuro endocrine and neurorehabilitation, where infused of local or systemic way have the capacity to immunomodulation and chemotaxis of neuronal cells. It has also been shown in patients with degenerative neurological diseases (for example, Alzheimer’s Disease, vascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hypoxic encephalopathy and anoxia), the plasma levels of various growth factors are lower than the values of reference, so that there is the hypothesis that might interfere with the mechanism of cellular hypoxia, producing both a function of neuroprotection, regeneration and differentiation of neural tissue.

Keywords: Plasma growth factors; Neurogenesis; Apoptosis; Angiogémesis; Anti-inflammatory; Neuro generation; Nerve repair


Each year, about 2,570,000 patients are affected by various kinds of neuronal injury, which represents US$ 1,200 million per year on health care. Different types of mechanisms: metabolic, ischemic stroke, mechanical, thermal, can cause structural lesions in the nerve, gap, or neuropathy associated with a profound impact on the autonomic, sensory and motor function in patient [1,2]. Currently both microsurgical repair and transplantation of nerve autograft, together with the specific programs of neurorehabilitation is the gold standard treatment designed to increase the intrinsic potential regenerative of damaged axons. However, these treatments fail to recreate the appropriate cellular and molecular microenvironment of nerve repair, as well as the case of the auto grafts can produce a second iatrogenic injury in the affected area, increasing the patient morbidity. In spite of the innate ability of the adult mammalian to regenerate neurons, the functional recovery of nerve injury is often incomplete, leading to pain and disability in daily life and work activities. Several factors complicate the nerve regeneration that occurs naturally; among them: the type and mechanism of the lesion, the age of the patient, the proximity of the lesion to the cell body, and the atrophy in both distal Schwann cells and de nerved muscle tissue [2,3].

In recent years, the manufacture of scaffolding to guide the nerve regeneration, through therapies based on cellular biochemical and electrical signals, produced by growth factors, have attracted the attention of the researcher with the aim of improving the functional results to repair the nerve. Evidence is accumulating in both preclinical and clinical studies that indicate that the plasma rich in growth factors (PRP) constitute an important potential therapeutic not only as a neuroprotective effect, but intervening in biochemical processes of Neurogenesis and therapeutic modulation of inflammation, promoting the recovery of sensory and motor nerve and the muscle [4-6] (Figure 1).