Quality of Life of the Patients Followed-up for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma at the National Teaching Hospital of Cotonou-Benin Republic

Research Article

Austin J Clin Ophthalmol. 2018; 5(2): 1090.

Quality of Life of the Patients Followed-up for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma at the National Teaching Hospital of Cotonou-Benin Republic

Odoulami L¹*, Alamou S², Ngouffo H², Tchabi S² and Doutetien C²

¹University Hospital of zone Suru-Léré, Benin

²National Teaching Hospital in Cotonou, Benin

*Corresponding author: Odoulami L, Department of ophthalmology, University of Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2915 Cotonou, BENIN

Received: March 15, 2018; Accepted: April 17, 2018; Published: April 24, 2018


Purpose: Appreciate the impact of primary open angle glaucoma on the daily lives of patients.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted from June 1st to August 31st 2015, which concerned 52 patients followed-up for primary open angle glaucoma, in which quality of life (QOL) was assessed using a Glaucoma Quality of Life-17 (GlauQol-17)-questionnaire. This latter is composed of 17 items grouped in 7 dimensions.

Results: The average age was of 61.79 years ± 12.22 years and the sex ratio of 0.86. Concerning the dimensions, the average score was 44.08% ± 24.83% for « anxiety », 41.33% ± 23.83% for « self-image », 67.75% ± 29% for « mood », 77.69% ± 23.94% for « daily activities », 58.50% ± 29.63% for « driving », 62.25% ± 26.12% for « constraints » and 62.83% ± 25% for the « self-care ». By order of decreasing frequency, the quality of life (QOL) was influenced by age, the clinical stage of the primary open angle glaucoma, the therapeutic class, the number of eye drops, the marital status, the profession and the visual acuity.

Conclusion: The use of the Glaucoma Quality of Life-17 (GlauQol-17) questionnaire allows the ophthalmologist to evaluate a domain that traditionally escapes him in the doctor-patient relationship.

Keywords: GlauQOL-17; Quality of life (QOL); Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG)


The quality of life (QOL) appears as reflecting the impact of disease, treatment and health decisions on the daily life, trying to approach the patient’s point of view [1]. The primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an optic neuropathy characterized by its chronicity, its onset is most often insidious, its evolution slowly progressive, with characteristic damage of theoptic nerve and the visual field [2]. Like all chronic diseases, glaucoma has a negative effect on the patient’s lives, an effect that will grow over the years with a gradual evolution towards blindness. More specific of glaucoma, are the dynamic effects of the disease, irreversible and slowly progressive, and often the belated character of the diagnosis, that inflicts to the patients an important psychic suffering. This psychological impact is even less accessible to the clinician that is not directly related to the pathophysiology. Added to this is the burden of a sometime difficult treatment, often cumbersome and not always well tolerated [3]. Therefore appears the necessity for better management of glaucoma patients to appreciate the repercussions of the POAG on their QOL.

Materials and Methods

A cross-sectional study of descriptive and analytical type was conducted over a period of three months (June 1st to August 31st, 2015) at the ophthalmologic department of the National Teaching Hospital in Cotonou.

We included in the study all literate patients aged 18 and above, followed-up for at least 6 months for POAG in Cotonou’s Teaching Hospital and who were received at the consultation during the study period. Were excluded, patients who could not give their illuminated consent.

Were sick of POAG all patients who had presented wide papillary excavations of the two eyes (cup/disc ratio greater than or equal to 0.5) associated to characteristic perimeter deficits of POAG, as well as an open iridocorneal angle according to Shaffer’s classification. Perimeter deficits seen are those of automated visual field surveys of the Octopus 301 according to the G1X program.

We considered three clinical stages of POAG based on perimeter deficits [4]:

- Early glaucoma (EG): bilateral involvement of automated visual field with the most involved eye having a value of Mean Defect (MD) less than 12db in absolute value and perimeter deficits type nasal projection Rönne, enlargement of the blind spot, scotoma of SEIDEL, or scotoma isolated on central para most often between 1 and 10 of the attachment point,

-Moderate glaucoma (MG): bilateral involvement of automated visual field with the most involved eye having a value of MD greater than 12db and less than 20db in absolute and perimeter deficits type arcuate scotoma higher or lower.

- Advanced glaucoma (AG): bilateral involvement of automated visual field with the most involved eye having a value of Mean Defect (MD) greater than 20db absolute and perimeter deficits type ring scotoma with relative preservation of the central region and or the temporal peripheral region, or altitudinal scotoma. QOL was appreciated from GlauQOL-17 questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 17 items grouped in 7 dimensions. The questionnaire was administered and completed with the assistance of the investigator. For each item asked, the participant had a choice of 4 or 5 ordered response categories. Only one answer was allowed per item and each answer brought a number of points for the tested item. Thus, for each dimension, tested summing the points obtained by item was the raw score and the set of the scores permitted to appreciate the participant’s QOL [5].

To facilitate reading scores, these were expressed as percentages and not raw score. The course of study was preceded by the approval of the National Ethics Committee for Research of Benin Health; the study therefore respected the principles of the Helsinki Declaration.

The collected data were processed and analyzed by SPSS 17 and the clearance of the database was made with Epi Info 3.5.3. Pearson Chi² of the test, the test Chi² corrected Yates and Fischer test were used to compare proportions; the association between variables was measured through the Odd Ratio and the significance level adopted was 0.05 percent.


We identified 52 participants whose average age was 61.79 years ± 12.22 years with extremes of 20 and 82 years. Participants under 65 years accounted for 55.8% of the sample. The sex ratio was 0.86, with 24 men (46.15%) and 28 women (53.85%). Half of the participants had a higher education; pensioners and married represented 67.30% of the sample respectively. The distribution of participants by grade level, occupation and marital status are shown in Table 1.