Retinal Vein Occlusion in Cotonou

Research Article

Austin J Clin Ophthalmol. 2018; 5(2): 1091.

Retinal Vein Occlusion in Cotonou

Odoulami L*, Savage Y, Alamou S, Sounouvou I, Tchabi S and Doutetien C

Department of Ophtalmology, University of Abomey- Calavi, Benin

*Corresponding author: Odoulami L, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2915 Benin

Received: March 15, 2018; Accepted: April 17, 2018; Published: April 24, 2018


Objectives: To study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary features of RVO.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical crosssectional study with retrospective collection. All patient records with RVO that visited 4 ophthalmic clinics in Cotonou over a 32 months period were reviewed. Data obtained were analyzed with the Epi-Data Analysis software version and a p<0.05 considered significant.

Results: Of the 96047 patients, 30 (0.03%) had RVO. The most represented patients were over 55 years old; the mean age was 58 ± 12 years. Sex ratio was 1.5. All patients presented on account of visual loss. Bilateral involvement occurred in 4 (13.3%) patients. Hypertension, glaucoma and diabetes were the most common disorders in our patients. There were 15 eyes (44.1%) with CRVO, 14 eyes (41.2%) with BRVO and 5 eyes (14.7%) with HRVO.67.6% of eyes had visual acuity less than 3/60 at presentation. Macular edema was the most common complication. Almost half (47.1%) of the affected eyes have not been treated. Intravitreal anti-VEGF, laser photocoagulation and intravitreal corticosteroids were the most used therapeutic means. The improvement in visual acuity after treatment was barely noticeable.

Conclusion: RVO are an important cause of visual acuity drop with a predominance of CRVO and BRVO. Early and appropriate treatment and treatment of risk factors could improve their functional prognosis.

Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion; Cotonou; Decrease in visual acuity; Risk factors


BRVO: Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion; CRVO: Central Retinal Vein Occlusion; HRVO: Hemiretinal Vein Occlusion; INV: Iris Neovascularization; MO: Macular Edema; NVG: Neovascular Glaucoma; POAG: Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma; RD: Retinal Detachment; RNV: Retinal Neovascularization; RVO: Retinal Vein Occlusion; SRD: Serous Retinal Detachment; VA: Visual Acuity; VEGF: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; VH: Vitreous Hemorraghe


Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are one of the most common causes of retinal vascular disease in adults (behind diabetic retinopathy), and a common cause of decreased visual acuity [1] making the severity of the disease; their prevalence increases considerably from the age of 60 [2-4]. The related risk factors are found in the Virchow triad, which combines the abnormalities of the container, the anomalies of the contents and the haemodynamic component [5].

Described since 1855 and topic of more than 3,000 publications mainly derived from studies in Caucasians and more recently in other ethnic groups [1], retinal vein occlusions have been little researched in melanoderms.

In Benin, no study has focused on retinal vein occlusions. It is therefore appropriate to take stock of the epidemiological profile, the clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects in order to better know this pathology on the one hand and to take care of it on the other hand.

Materials and Methods

This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study with retrospective collection. All patient records with RVO and fluorescein angiography, in 4 ophthalmic clinics in Cotonou from January 1st, 2015 to August 31, 2017 were reviewed. Data obtained were analyzed with the Epi-Data Analysis software version and a p<0.05 considered significant.

Collected data included demographic characteristics, risk factors, presenting visual acuity, IOP, clinical diagnosis, ocular complications, treatments offered and outcomes.

The diagnosis of RVO was funduscopic and was guided by venous dilatation and/or tortuosity, superficial or deep haemorrhages, cotton wool spots, retinal edema associated or not with macular involvement. According to their location, we distinguished CRVO with these signs widespread scattered to the retinal field, BRVO with these signs occuring within one retinal sector and HRVO with signs were present in the upper or lower retinal half. Confirmatory investigations as fundus fluorescein angiography and/or macular optical coherence tomography were helpful for the diagnosis of complications which are macula edema, sub-retinal detachment, vitreous haemorrhages, retinal neovascularization.


Out of 96047 patients seen in these 4 clinics, there were 30 (0.03%) cases of documented RVO during the study period. The mean age was 58 ± 12 years (range 35-77 years); the most represented patients were over 55 years old. There were 18 males (60%) and 12 females (40%) giving a sex-ratio of 1.5. more than half (56.7%) of the patients consisting of traders (30%), civil servants (16.7%) and artisan (10%) (Figure 1).