Role of Obesity in Chronic Periodontal Disease - A Literature Review

Review Article

J Dent & Oral Disord. 2016; 2(2): 1012.

Role of Obesity in Chronic Periodontal Disease - A Literature Review

Amrutiya MR* and Deshpande N

Department of Periodontics, K.M. Shah Dental College & Hospital, India

*Corresponding author: Amrutiya MR, Department of Periodontics, K.M. Shah Dental College & Hospital, At. & Po. Piparia, Gujarat, India

Received: April 01, 2016; Accepted: April 26, 2016; Published: April 28, 2016


Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifarious origin where there is increase in deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Obesity has become an important health problem as its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the supporting structures of the tooth. Chronic periodontitis has a multifaceted origin with numerous risk factors that contribute to disease progression. Obesity represents a systemic condition capable of causing the onset and progression of periodontal disease. The probable mechanism for this association has been suggested to involve the proinflammatory state that exists in patients with obesity, which results in insulin resistance and oxidative stress. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review the association between adipose tissue derived cytokines and periodontal disease.

Keywords: Obesity; Chronic periodontal disease; Adipose tissue; Body mass index


An increased prevalence of obesity has been observed in recent years and is one of the fastest growing health-related problems in the world. Obesity is caused by eating more calories than the calories burn in daily routine activity. As the prevalence of obesity is increasing, the other health related problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have also increased in conjunction with obesity. Obesity contributes to an overall inflammatory condition through its metabolic and immune parameters, thereby increasing susceptibility to periodontal disease [1]. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the tooth supporting structures. Periodontal disease is chronic in nature and can prevail in the absence of treatment. The risk factors linked to a higher risk of periodontitis include smoking, hormonal changes in females, diabetes, genetics, AIDS, cancer. The mechanism(s) whereby obesity may affect periodontal health is so far unclear. Focusing on the biological aspects, alterations in oral conditions or a low grade chronic inflammation might be because of the excessive adipose tissue. It has also been suggested that there is a high production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, IL-6, by the adipocytes and macrophages of the white adipose tissue [2]. These cytokines play a significant role in the development and progression of periodontal disease because the release of inflammatory cytokines is closely linked to a higher susceptibility to bacterial infection, caused by an alteration in the host immune response [3]. This review focuses on the effects of obesity on infectious disease and surmise on possible mechanisms for increased susceptibility of the obese host.

Obesity: definition, assessment and complication

Obesity is the excess amount of body fat in proportion to lean body mass, to such an extent that the health is impaired. The explanation of obesity is based on Body Mass Index (BMI), that is person’s weight (in kilogram), divided by the square of his/her height (in meter). The normal range is given below in Table 1.

Citation:Amrutiya MR and Deshpande N. Role of Obesity in Chronic Periodontal Disease - A Literature Review. J Dent & Oral Disord. 2016; 2(2): 1012. ISSN:2572-7710