Dental Considerations of Children with Anemias - An Overview

Review Article

J Dent & Oral Disord. 2019; 5(2): 1113.

Dental Considerations of Children with Anemias - An Overview

Nirmala SVSG* and Saikrishna D

¹Department of Paedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, India

²Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, India

*Corresponding author: Nirmala SVSG, Department of Paedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, Nellore, India

Received: June 03, 2019; Accepted: July 15, 2019; Published: July 22, 2019


Anaemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. It affects both the genders but more frequently seen in females than males. It is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Anaemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, and aplastic anaemia. The manifestations include conjunctiva and facial pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular stomatitis, dysphagia, magenta tongue, midfacial overgrowth, osteoclerosis, osteomyelitis and paraesthesia/anaesthesia of the mental nerve. Orofacial petechiae, conjunctivae haemorrhage, nose-bleeding, spontaneous and post-traumatic gingival haemorrhage and prolonged post-extraction bleeding are common orofacial manifestations. Dental management of patients of aplastic anaemia requires inter disciplinary care with the consultation of the treating dentist with haematologist. This article provides aetiology, clinical features, investigations, diagnosis and treatment of different types of anaemia.

Keywords: Anemia; Children; Dental management; Oral health


Anaemia is a term used to define a decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells, haemoglobin, and haematocrit result from blood loss (iron deficiency anaemia), decreased red cell production (Aplastic anaemia) or increased red cell destruction (Haemolytic anaemia) [1].

The World Health Organization defines anaemia as a level of Hb below 13.0 g/dL in male adults, below 12.0 g/dL in female adults who are not pregnant, and below 11.0 g/dL in pregnant women. 47 Hb levels may vary across age and race, 48 so care must be taken, particularly in the interpretation of borderline values [2].


Anaemia can be classified morphologically, etiologically and based on Reticulocyte Production Index (RTI) (kinetic classification).

Morphological classification

It is based on measurement of red blood cells. “There are three types of anaemias depending on RBC size (Table 1).