Differently Abled- Oral Manifestations- Report and Review

Case Report

Austin J Dent. 2017; 4(3): 1072.

Differently Abled- Oral Manifestations- Report and Review

Manjaly AP¹*, Thomas A¹, Chawla C², Rao PK² and Sowmya B¹

¹Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, AJ Institute of Dental Sciences, India

²Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, AJ Institute of Dental Sciences, India

*Corresponding author: Adonais P Manjaly, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, AJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Kuntikana, Mangalore, PIN– 575004, Karnataka, India

Received: February 15, 2017; Accepted: March 30, 2017; Published: April 25, 2017


Mental retardation is the most common form of developmental disability. It is a neuronal developmental disorder. This group of population also suffer from other disabilities such as cerebral palsy, seizure, attention disorders, hyperactivity, communication inability, difficulty in mastication and deglutition. Oral hygiene of the mentally compromised population is poor, and thus, they are prone to various oral diseases and anomalies, which require diagnosis and treatment. So this article elicits the oral manifestations of mentally challenged individuals with an idea of improving their oral hygiene status.

Keywords: Oral manifestations; Oral hygiene; Oral prophylaxis


Before 1981, rate of mental retardation in India was not statistically assessed. However, in year of 1981, survey was conducted which reported that approximately one third of the population were children [1]. Most of the children suffering with mental retardation are unable to perform self oral hygiene measures so they require continuous monitoring and special preventive strategies. Moreover, good oral hygiene condition is necessary for function of speech, swallowing and social acceptance. Although they require utmost dental care possible, there is a lacuna either due to limited training experience or due to lack of financial reimbursement [2]. Thus, oral conditions affecting the population are of fundamental importance to dentist to plan for effective oral treatment.

Case Presentation

A group of 20 mentally disabled patients of age group 9-18 years came to the dental OPD as a part of preventive program. Examination of each patient was carried out on dental chair and any abnormalities noticed were recorded. All the examination was done under special care and under the supervision of parent/ guardian/teacher.

Out of the 20 mentally disabled children, most of them had convex profile (Figure 1A). Intraoral examination revealed constricted maxillary arch and high arched palate (Figure 1B). Hard tissue manifestations which were noted were dental caries (Figure 1C), microdontia, missing anterior teeth (Figure 1D) and crowding with anterior cross bite (Figure 1B, E and F). Soft tissue manifestations were macroglossia (Figure 1G) and fissured tongue (Figure 1H). Gingival was soft and edematous with local deposits and mild bleeding on probing.