Dental Considerations and Management of Children with Renal Diseases - An Over View

Special Article - Pediatric Dentistry

Austin J Dent. 2018; 5(6): 1122.

Dental Considerations and Management of Children with Renal Diseases - An Over View

Nirmala SVSG*

Department of Paedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Professor, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, India

*Corresponding author: Nirmala SVSG, Department of Paedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, India

Received: October 29, 2018; Accepted: November 26, 2018; Published: December 03, 2018


Kidneys are vital organs for maintain a stable internal environment, prevalence of renal disease is increasing universally. Nephritic syndrome is a clinical manifestation of any glomerular lesion that causes more than 35g of proteinuria/ day. Chronic renal disease is defined as a progressive and irreversible decline in renal function associated with a reduced glomerular filtration rate. Common renal disorders seen in children include congenital nephropathies, nephrotic syndrome, Chronic Renal Failure (CRF), glomerulonephritis, hydronephrosis, and multicystic renal dysplasia, which ultimately lead to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Children usually show growth retardation, bleeding tendency due to capillary fragility and thrombocytopenia is positive, pale and anaemic. This article discuss about the etiology, clinical features and dental management of children with renal diseases.

Keywords: Children; Dental Management; Oral Health; Renal Diseases


Kidneys play an important role in sustain physiologic balance; regaining homeostasis and fluid electrolyte acid-based balance, drug metabolism and elimination, blood pressure control through the renin-angio-tensin system, red blood cell production through erythropoietin production, and vitamin common renal disorders seen in children are nephritic syndrome, chronic renal failure, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulo nephritis which ultimately leads to end stage of renal failure [1].

Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrosis)

It is a condition that indicates exogenous or endogenous glomerular injury. Acute nephritic syndromes occur most frequently in children and are classically associated with post streptococcal glomerulo nephritis, commonly preceded by a beta-hemolytic streptococcal oropharyngitis. Typically l-2 weeks after the pharyngitis. Since the advent of penicillin therapy, acute nephritic syndrome has been observed less frequently aher streptococcal pharyngitis [1].

The aetiology of this syndrome is unknown but there is a reasonable possibility that it is an autoimmune disease. The onset is often at the age of about 2 to 3 years and the duration may be months or years. There are glomerular changes and a loss of protein. Oedema is an important feature which recurs during the course of the disease and secondary anaemia may be present. These children are very susceptible to infection and upper respiratory infections are common. Exacerbations of the renal condition may occur on these occasions [3,4] (Table 1).