Evaluation of Soil Foundation by Integration of Geophysical and Geotechnical Methods at West Kom Umbo Area, Aswan, Egypt

Review Article

Austin J Earth Sci. 2021; 4(1): 1024.

Evaluation of Soil Foundation by Integration of Geophysical and Geotechnical Methods at West Kom Umbo Area, Aswan, Egypt

Hafeez THA¹*, Bekhet M¹, Bakr MA¹ and Hamdy A²

¹Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

²Senior Engineering Geophysicist, Misr Consult Groub, Cairo, Egypt

*Corresponding author: Tharwat H Abdel Hafeez, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Received: April 15, 2021; Accepted: May 11, 2021; Published: May 18, 2021


This research includes combining a geophysical study with a geotechnical study to explore different soil types in the western Kom Umbo area. First: The geophysical study, which includes Electrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar were conducted to determine the subsurface layers, and to identify “gaps and soil heterogeneity, if any.”

Fifty Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESs) were made to determine the layers and the electrical resistivity of the layers. Twelve Ground Penetrating Radar profiles (GPR) have also been created to identify soil homogeneity, gaps, geotechnical properties and to identify “existing cracks or faults. Second: the geotechnical study, which includes the study of a different boreholes in all areas of the study to determine the different layers and geotechnical properties.

And field tests (standard penetration test) were done and laboratory tests (such as sieves analysis). And how to determine the degree of soil quality and the ability to build on it. From the above, we can combine the results of geophysics with the results of the geotechnical study to evaluate of soil foundation and to obtain confirmed and accurate information about the nature of the soil in the study area and its homogeneity and determine the possibility of exploiting and benefiting from it in industrial facilities, large, small, residential buildings, green spaces.

According to this research the study area is generally divided into two layers, the first layer consists of gravel sand which has a resistivity range from 4189 to 38033 and the second layer is sand which has a resistivity value ranging from 1224 to 9682 ohm/m. and in the present study we have achieved the next procedure on the processed GPR data, displaying 2D profiles that contain the expected anomalies. Because the study area is saturated with silty sand and gravel, part of radar waves is attenuated and the reflections from the subsurface materials are weak. Results with the 100 MHz antennae are the resistive sand, gravel is a very good GPR target, and horizontal layering and stratification are evident throughout the deposit. Engineering studies on samples which collected from different sites in the study area reveal that, the results of uniformity coefficient (Cu) ranging between 3.15 (Very uniform) to 35.56 (Non-uniform). The results of coefficient of gradation range between 0.61 (poorly graded) to 2.41 (Well graded).

Keywords: Kom umbo; Electrical resistivity; Ground penetrating radar; Soil foundation


Recently, the Egyptian Government pays special attention to develop the West Kom Umbo area, which called El-Gallaba Plain. Such development planning has already started with establishing PV power plants in the Benban project. Furthermore, it is expected to continue and include agriculture, industrial and urban development projects. However, these development plans should be based on appropriate land use planning, which must consider the geological and geotechnical soil properties, as well as the impact of natural geological hazards. The proposed study will tackle this issue using the integration of geophysical and engineering geology.

The study area is located northwest of Aswan city, in the Western Desert between latitude 24° to 25° N and longitude 31° 30° to 33° E, and comprises the El-Gallaba Plain, the western part of the Kom Umbo basin, and Wadi El-Kubanyia (Figure 1). It is characterized by an arid climate with desert-like conditions. Although rainfall is not significant throughout the year, some rare and irregular storms take place over. (Area 5336km²).