Effect of Multiple Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs) on Liver of Three Teleostean Fishes Labeobata, Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala in Burdwan Loco Tank, Burdwan, West Bengal, India

Research Article

Austin Environ Sci. 2017; 2(1): 1017.

Effect of Multiple Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs) on Liver of Three Teleostean Fishes Labeobata, Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala in Burdwan Loco Tank, Burdwan, West Bengal, India

Haque S*, Mondal S, Kundu D and Ghosh AR

Ecotoxicological Lab, Department of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, India

*Corresponding author: Haque Smaranya, Ecotoxicological Lab, Department of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, India

Received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: February 22, 2017; Published: February 24, 2017


The study considered the special effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or PAHs present in the diesel infested Loco tank on the liver of three teleostean fishes namely, Labeobata,Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala. The histopathological study on liver of these three fishes revealed the distortion of the hepatic cords, dilation of the sinusoids, degeneration of endothelial cells lining, shrinkage of acinar cells, bile stagnation and early signs of necrosis, prominent ones in L. bata. In L. rohita, the hepatic cords were disrupted. Apart from the deformed nucleus, nuclear megalocity, dilated sinusoids were noticed. In C. mrigala, vacuolation of the sinusoids, degeneration of the hepatic cords, bile stagnation, formation of small vacuoles, and mild necrosis in some places were the major symptoms of toxicity. The mean plasma ALPase activities (117.0±20.368, 412.0±128.550, and 160.6±9.074 IU/l) of all the fish, L. bata, L. rohita and C. mrigala amplified at 162.95%, 201.96% and 107.56% respectively, while SGOT (AST) activities (199.0±40.037, 232.0±39.661 and 276.3±31.086u/l) increased at 125.15%, 126.98% and 169.35% with significantly higher (p<0.05) in respect to control. Plasma SGPT (ALT) activity in fish illustrated a similar pattern of increment over control group. However, the modified histo-architechture phenomena and altered enzymatic activities of liver disclosed that the PHAs originated from diesel-fed aquatic system, may revolutionize physiological functions of these three fishes L. bata, L. rohita and C. mrigala of three different layers, surface, column and bottom, respectively.

Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs); Histopathology; Plasma enzymes; Fish


Pollutants are continuously impairing the biological functioning of an organism to cause an undesirable change to ecosystem including humans even to non-target organisms, which are associated to that particular environmental condition [1]. At the present time, different aquatic systems exposed to pollutants due to unsystematic and spontaneous use of resources generating number of alarming responses to both on system as well as organisms. Petroleum is employed as the main source of energy; despite of its all importance, it also acts as a global environmental pollutant [2]. Petroleum, enter into the aquatic system through waste disposal and accidental spills is considered to be a complex mixture of many chemicals and its 1% is soluble in water having Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF) like Hydrocarbons (HCs) and heterocyclic compounds [3]. Some microorganisms can utilize petroleum and petroleum products as sole carbon sources for getting their energy and metabolic activities [4]. Multiplicity of sub-lethal effects of crude oil or diesel components have been accounted to a number of aquatic organisms, like fish [5] due to large quantities of PAHs originate form diesel in the course of microorganisms degradation [2]. Fish are suitable indicators of contaminants accumulation [6] and aquatic toxicity study of any contaminant because of their high sensitivity to environment. Its minimum modification can alter physiological and biochemical status of the respective organ, tissue or pathways related to that toxicant. Fishes are the good accumulator of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons [3]. Accumulation, excretion and biotransformation of most pollutants take place in liver, vital functions in essential metabolism, act in response specifically to the level and nature of contamination [7]. Histo-pathological changes in liver are used as biomarker as well as assessment of effect for the environmental pollution and its changes in fish livers exposed to number of organic compounds [8]. Like other, in fish multifunctional enzyme, alkaline phosphatase produces transphosphorylase in alkaline medium and mineralizes in skeleton [9]. Biochemical indicator of liver toxicity, ALT (Alanine aminotransferases) and AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) are aminotransferases, help gluconeogenesis from amino acids, and in hepatic cells provide aminotransferase activities [10].

AST and ALT, present in different organs plays a vital role in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolic pathway, can be hampered in several stress condition [11]. Alkaline phosphatase which involved in the hydrolysis of phosphomonoester substrates can be altered in cyanide exposure and thus affected on hepatic and renal tissues [12]. Transaminase enzymes act as a marker for the functions and integrity of the heart and liver. By examining blood physiological, nutritional and pathological status of an organism can be reveal. For the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum ALP is act as a marker enzyme. It also can be use for assessing integrity of the plasma membrane. Increment of ALP level and ALP activity are the indication of the membrane and liver damage respectively. Hence, changes in enzyme kinetics in different organs reveal the presence/ exposure of toxic elements in the surrounding environment and thus enzyme studies facilitate to understand the toxicity in the organs [13].

The effects of PAHs are well documented in laboratory conditions, but its changes in liver for diesel and diesel derivative PAHs with other vital limnological factors in field conditions still are lacking. The present experiment has been conducted to show the effect of discharged diesel oil of the diesel-fed Loco tank in the liver of the fish collected from three different trophic levels of the pond. The histopathological studies and serum biochemical parameters like SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALPase) have been investigated to register the effect of diesel oil on the liver of target fish species viz.,Cirrhinusmrigala, Labeobata and Labeorohita which are abundantly cultured in the study site. According to the feeding habit Labeobata is a surface feeder, Labeorohita is a column feeder and Cirrhinusmrigala is a bottom feeder. So, these target species can cover the whole water column.


Study site

The Loco tank, which is adjacent to Barddhaman locomotives is used by the Rupali Cooperative Limited for aquaculture with a total area approximately 11.0 hectares with an yearly catch at an average of 22.72 metrictons. The main species cultured in this pond are tilapia, catla, rohu, mrigal, silver carp etc. Labeobata, Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala were chosen during the experimental period and weight of the chosen fish species were 26.71±4.17, 35.53±2.97 and 41.32±3.49 cm while, weight were 0.24±0.14, 0.74±0.18, 1.40±0.23 Kg respectively. It is worth mentioning that total 12 number of fishes from each category were taken (n=12).This pond is located at 23014’42”N latitude and 87052’38”E longitude. As a consequence of residential and locomotive works, it is receiving an appreciable amount of domestic sewages also from the North and North-Western parts of the pond and diesel discharging points located at the Southern and South- Western parts. There are two main parts from where the diesel oils are directly discharged into the pond, although there is a small “effluent treatment plant” on the Southern part of the pond (Figure 1).