Antibiotic Pollution Pressure on Bizerte Lagoon Isolated Bacteria

Research Article

Austin J Environ Toxicol. 2016; 2(1): 1009.

Antibiotic Pollution Pressure on Bizerte Lagoon Isolated Bacteria

Ben Said O*, Souissi M, Ben Khelil M, Aissa P and Beyrem H

Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Department of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Cathage, Tunisie

*Corresponding author: Olfa Ben Said, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Laboratory of Environment Biomonitoring, Coastal Ecology and Ecotoxicology Unit, University of Cathage, Tunisia

Received: November 13, 2015; Accepted: February 24, 2016; Published: March 01, 2016


Present work aims firstly to identify the most sold ATBs in Bizerte city. Its objectives are also to quantify the total and fecal bacteria at four lagoon stations near the outlet of Bizerte city Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), to isolate, characterize and study their antibiotic resistance profiles. According to the census, the ß-lactams represented the most sold ATBs (99.8 %) in Bizerte city. Fecal bacterial biomass was higher in sediments mainly in upstream of WWTP discharge (3 106 fecal streptococci/mg). The outfall sediment appeared rich in fecal coliforms (2 105 bacteria / mg). Altogether, 88 bacterial strains have been isolated and characterized. The antibiotic resistance study has identified 100 % of resistance to ATBs tested at WWTP discharge point. Resistant phenotype was omnipresent in all sampling sites, in particular ß- lactam resistance profile.

Keywords: ATBs; Sold; Bacteria; Antibiotic resistance; Wastewater treatment plant


According to a study conducted in 1999 and 2000 [1], 82 chemicals including 31 drugs (such as ATBs) were found in 80% of Canadian rivers. Antibiotics, defined as natural or synthetic compounds produced by a microorganism and prohibiting the growth of another [2], are widely used in human and veterinary medicine [2]. One of the consequences of their presence in the receiving environment is that many bacterial species develop transferable mutations, which allow them to escape the unfavorable external conditions [3] but also to develop antimicrobial resistance increasingly problematic for the environment. This resistance could be an aggravating factor, assuming that it would reduce the therapeutic options in case of infection. Indeed, antibiotic resistance, which leads to the spread of multi-resistant strains, is distinguished by its natural or acquired character, its mechanism and genetic support [4]. Antibiotics, once administered, are excreted and eliminated in untreated and treated wastewater [2]. Present work represents the first census of antibiotics consumed in Bizerte city. Its second objective is to quantify and isolate indicator bacteria of fecal contamination from Bizerte lagoon water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream releases of Bizerte city wastewater treatment plant WWTP in order to study their antibiotic resistance profiles.

Materials and Methods

ATBs census

Survey site: Bizerte is a town in north-eastern Tunisia, located 65 km north-west of the capital (Figure 1). Its population was 536.0 people since the 2007 census [5]. Bizerte has 22 private pharmacies (including 2 night pharmacies), a regional hospital, a military hospital and polyclinic of the National Social Security Fund (CNSS) (Figure 1).