Carbon Storage in Sediments of Freshwater Fishponds of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal, India

Research Article

Austin J Environ Toxicol. 2019; 5(1): 1026.

Carbon Storage in Sediments of Freshwater Fishponds of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal, India

Adhikari S1*, Mahanty D1, Ikmail S2, Sarkar S2, Rathod R3 and Pillai BR2

¹Regional Research Centre (RRC) of ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, West Bengal, India

²ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, India

³Regional Research Centre (RRC) of ICAR-CIFA, Penamaluru Fish Seed Farm, India

*Corresponding author: Subhendu Adhikari, Regional Research Centre (RRC) of ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Received: September 27, 2019; Accepted: October 29, 2019; Published: November 05, 2019


Considering the impact of climate change on aquaculture practices, carbon storage by fish pond sediment could mitigate some emission of greenhouse gases form the fish ponds. The potentials of carbon storage by the sediments of fish ponds of Ganjam, Keonjhargarh, and Puri districts of Odisha, Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, Moyna and Tamluk of East Medinipur, Purulia, Bankura, Murshidabad, South and North 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India were estimated. It is evident from the results that with an increase in fish production, the C storage decreased. The production per crop in the present study increased from 1815±376 kg/ha to 8351±1882 kg/ha and accordingly, the C storage/kg fish decreased from 1.44±0.73 to 0.62±0.21. The three types of combined humus carbon (loosely, stably and tightly combined humus carbon) were also analyzed for some sediment in the present study. The loosely combined humus varied from 36 to 43 per cent, stably combined humus varied from 4 to 6 per cent, and tightly combined humus varied from 53 to 58 per cent, respectively. Among the three combined humus, loosely combined form constitute about 40 percent of the total soil organic carbon, and thus, carbon sequestration could be 60 percent of the total soil carbon storage.

Keywords: Carbon storage; Sequestration; Sediments; Aquaculture ponds


Increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration in the atmosphere is the main reason for climate change as accumulated GHGs in the atmosphere intercepts outgoing infra-red radiation which traps heat and raises the temperature in the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide (CO2) level has increased by 31 per cent, from 280 ppmv in 1850 to 380 ppmv in 2005, and is now increasing at 1.7 ppmv/ yr [1]. With this increase, there is a growing public and scientific concern about the carbon sequestration potential of various terrestrial ecosystems especially wetlands [2]. It has been suggested that the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 into soil organic carbon (SOC) could contribute significantly to adhere with the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases [3,4]. In stabilizing the atmospheric abundance of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to mitigate the risks of global warming [5]. [6] suggested that there are three strategies of lowering CO2 emissions: (i) reducing the global energy use, (ii) developing low or no-carbon fuel, and (iii) sequestering CO2 from point sources or atmosphere through natural and engineering techniques. Fifteen options of stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 by 2050 at approximately 550 ppm have been outlined by [7]. Three of these 15 options were based on carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems [8]. In this respect, aquaculture ponds can play potential role in carbon sequestration.

During the last three decades world food fish production of aquaculture has expanded by almost 12 times, with an average annual rate of 8.8 per cent. Presently 600 aquatic species are raised in captivity in about 190 countries for production in farming systems of varying input intensities and technological sophistication (FAO, 2016). Thus, there is immense scope to store and capture carbon by the fishponds to reduce and offset the chance of emitting different GHGs from the different aquaculture systems. Thus the objectives of the present study are: (i) to assess the potentials of carbon storage in different aquaculture ponds of three different states in India; (ii) to determine the extent of carbon sequestration of pond sediments.

Materials and Methods

Aquaculture ponds were chosen for the carbon storage study from the Ganjam (19.5860° N, 84.6897° E), Keonjhargarh (21.6289° N, 85.5817° E) and Puri (19.8134° N, 85.8315° E) districts of Odisha, Kaikaluru Mandal (16.5527° N, 81.2129° E) of Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, and Moyna (22.2738° N, 87.7697° E), Tamluk block (22.2788° N, 87.9188° E) of East Medinipur, Purulia (23.3321° N, 86.3652° E), Bankura (23.1645° N, 87.0624° E), Murshidabad (24.2290° N, 88.2461° E), south 24 Parganas (22.1352° N, 88.4016° E) and North 24 Parganas (22.6168° N, 88.4029° E) districts of West Bengal, India. Overall, the culture period in these areas varied from 180 to 300 days. The culture practices in these ponds are shown in Table 1.