Stability and Presence of Pesticide Residue Sample Extracts of Soil and Vegetable: Eloor & Edayar Region, Kerala, Industrial Hub Nearer to Arabian Sea

Research Article

Austin J Environ Toxicol. 2021; 7(1): 1036.

Stability and Presence of Pesticide Residue Sample Extracts of Soil and Vegetable: Eloor & Edayar Region, Kerala, Industrial Hub Nearer to Arabian Sea

Divya KR1*, Midhun TR3, Moushmi KS1, Cheriyan AS1, Nisari AR1, Ratheeshkumar CS4, Shaiju P1, MartinGD1 and Chandramohanakumar N1,2

1Department of Chemical Oceanography, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India

2Inter University Centre for Development of Marine Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India

3Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India

4School of Environmental studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India

*Corresponding author: Divya KR, Department of Chemical Oceanography, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, India

Received: February 19, 2021; Accepted: March 15, 2021; Published: March 22, 2021


Eloor-Edayar, (latitude 9° 3´N and 10° 6´N and longitudes 76° 18´E and 76° 30´ and an area of 14.21km2) the landmass situated on the banks of River Periyar, is known as the industrial backbone of Kerala. The previous reports reveal this region is highly contaminated by heavy metal from industrial effluents. The present study focuses on pesticides in vegetables (Ladies finger, Papaya, Kachil- yam, Guava, Tapioca, Ginger) and related soil extracts when kept in cold conditions and their presence after a long period. The samples collected in May 2008 pre-monsoon, the environment when the soil and vegetables were free from volatile organic components, accelerates the adsorption of pesticides and high temperature. The samples shoot vegetable ladies finger, edible root vegetables Kachil-Yum, Tapioca and Ginger, fruits like Papaya and Guava and the sediments nearer land. The sample extracts analyzed in 2019 after keeping in the cold as well as the usual conditions. The Analysis report shows the pesticides present in the vegetables and soil are a, β, γ BHC Aldrin, Dicofol, a, β, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, OPDDT and PPDDT. Aldrin, Dicofol and BHC are the related forms in ladies Finger contains γ BHC, a, β, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, Aldrin, PPDDT. Ginger added a, β, γ BHC Aldrin, Dicofol, a, β, Endosulfan, OPDDT and PPDDT. Tapioca carried a, β, γ BHC, Dicofol and PPDDT. Kachil-Yum absorbed a, β, γ BHC Aldrin, Dicofol, a, β, Endosulfan, OPDDT and PPDDT. Papaya contains a and γ BHC. Guava captivated a, γ BHC Aldrin, Dicofol, a Dieldrin OPDDT and PPDDT.

Keywords: Eloor-edayar; Organochlorine pesticides; Endosulfan; DDT


The “Green Revolution” initiated in the 1960s made India No. 1 manufacturer of pesticides in Asia and 12th globally. Due to uncontrolled use, Indian foods and vegetables have the highest residues in the world. At the national level in India, Kerala is the highest [1] among in districts Kasaragod [2] and Palakkad [3].

Environmental bioaccumulation potential and associated health issues, most of the OCL pesticides categorized as environmental hazards and banned by The Stockholm Convention [4-6]. WHO reports that at present, in Developing countries, organochlorine pesticides used for farming [7] even though Developed countries have declared them as primary pollutants [7-11]. Microorganisms, invertebrates, plants, birds like the peregrine falcon, sparrow hawk and bald eagle, fish and blood plasma of agrifarmers affected badly by OCLs [12-18].

Among Humans, effects of pesticide contamination causes Neuromuscular disorders, stimulation of drug and steroid metabolism [19,20], potential risk factor for gallstone disease [21], vitamin D deficiency [22] and also affects endocrine-disruption activity in patients with neonatal thyroid hormone status. Endosulfan residues in humans bioaccumulated through plants and animal foods and Gastrointestinal absorption of it damages CNS-central nerve system causing acute inhalation toxicity [23,24]. Dialdrin is partly responsible for risk increment of Parkinsons disease. Thyroid hormone levels of the newborn are affected by β-HCH, HCB and DDT residues. Heptachlor bring mitochondria-mediated cell death by spoiling electron transport chain complex III and become neurotoxicant and in patients with Parkinson’s disease [25]. In the research on passing from one species to its offspring it seemed Pesticide residue are seen present in eggs of sea birds [26] and humans in Korea, Guerrero, Mexico, China and India transferred via maternal cord sera, blood, and the placenta and breast milk [27].

Chemical compounds that terminate insects, fungi, bacteria, herbs or rodents are generally known as Pesticides. Pesticides are classified based on their nature, application, and targeted pests. By nature, they are organochlorine (DDT, Dieldrin, lindane, Endosulfanetc), organophosphorus (Parathion, Malathion etc.). It is applicable for Agriculture, Public health, and Domestic purposes. It targets pests as insects -insecticide, fungi- fungicide, herbs-herbicide and rodentsrodenticides [28]. At the application of organochlorine pesticide group (DDT, DDD, Dicofol, Eldrin, Dieldrin, Chlorobenziate, Lindane, BHC, Methoxychloro Aldrin, Chlordane, Heptachlor, Endosulfan, Isodrin, Isobenzan, Toxaphene, Chloropropylate) is well known than the rapidly hydrolyzed degradation of the environmental organophosphorous [29,30]. Organochlorine pesticides persist for days to years in the environment, Endosulfan C9H6Cl6O3S has a halflife of 35(a-isomer) to 150(β-isomer) days, and Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT) C14H9Cl5 has a half-life of 2 to 15 years [4,31].

The study region Eloor-Edayar, in Ernakulam district, is the Industrial Area of Kerala and is a hot spot categorized under Green peace [32]. A partial pesticide manufacturing unit, which was closed by Govt due to the local public’s protest during the period of sample collection. Many studies conducted here showed that pesticides contaminate the area. A series of pesticide studies from 1990 to 1999 on water and sediment from the Periyar River line was done by the Department of Chemical Oceanography, CUSAT. Menon et al. 2000 [33] studied macro Benthic, Benthic fauna, Prawn, Fish, mollusc and Polychaaetens in this region. Further studies on the survived species were carried out and revised by Martin et al. 2011 [34].

Previous studies focused on the water and sediment samples near estuary or estuarine sediments. The presence of organo phosphorous pesticides Malathion and Methyl Parathion and organo chlorine pesticide Endosulfan samples of Periyar side has been reported by Sujatha et al. 1999 and 1994 [35-37].

This study focused on the baseline data of organochlorine pesticide stability, degradation or pesticide residues in the extracts of vegetables from the land area located at the river end.

Materials and Methods

Study area

Eloor is an industrial area-north of Kochi in Ernakulam District in Kerala in India situated between north latitudes 9° 3´and 10° 6´ and east longitudes 76° 18´ and 76° 30´. This island has an area of 14.21km2 formed between two rivers Periyar distributaries and is the largest industrial belt in Kerala. Most of the industries, (70% approximately 250 companies) of Kerala state in this region, including chemical, engineering, food, drug, paper, rayon, rubber, textiles, and plywood industries. At the time of sample collection in 2008, Eloor, a Panchayat, now turned to Municipality. During the sampling period survey of Department of Industries Govt. of Kerala and Eloor Grama Panchayat had 20 wards of population density 2425/Km2. The panchayat is house to 4.2% of industrial company workers. The vegetarian and non-vegetarian comprise 3.9% and 0.1% of the population.14.4% people from Eloor utilized their land for cultivation of food including grains 3.88%, vegetables 1.48%, fruits 1.292%, coconut 16.17% and roots 0.25%. 95.93% of water in wells is contaminated. The sampling was during May 2008 Pre Monsoon period (Figure 1 and Table 1).