Macular Alterations in Patients with Chronic Diseases in Queretaro

Research Article

J Fam Med. 2023; 10(5): 1344.

Macular Alterations in Patients with Chronic Diseases in Queretaro

Martinez-Escobar L¹*; Terrazas-Rodriguez LD²

¹Department of Family Medicine, Family Medicine Unit 16, IMSS, Querétaro, Mexico

²Educational Research and Teacher Training Center IMSS, Querétaro, México.

*Corresponding author: Martínez-Escobar Lariza Department of Family Medicine, Family Medicine Unit 16, IMSS, Queretaro, Mexico. Tel: (442) 395 3551 Email: [email protected]

Received: November 22, 2023 Accepted: December 19, 2023 Published: December 26, 2023


Background: Visual health problems and chronic-degenerative diseases have a significant impact on the Mexican population. Macular alterations are the third worldwide cause of moderate to severe visual disability. The timely detection of macular alterations and the control of chronic-degenerative diseases allow stopping or prolonging their progress, giving better visual health and quality of life.

Objective: To determine the association between the main chronic degenerative diseases and macular alterations.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional observational study was carried out in patients over 60 years of age assigned to UMF 16. The selection of participants was carried out in a non-probabilistic manner. The Amsler grid test was applied as a screening to detect macular alterations, and clinical, metabolic and sociodemographic variables were also measured. For the statistical analysis we used descriptive statistics with measures of central tendency and dispersion; in the inferential analysis, Chi-Square Test, odds ratio and ANOVA were used.

Results: A total of 112 patients were analyzed. The frequency of macular alterations in the right eye was 25%; and the same for the left eye. The total frequency of macular alterations was 36%. When analyzing the four groups we found the following results for qualitative variables: sex, p 0.58; education, p 0.27; CKD stage, p 0.22; smoking, p 0.22; dyslipidemia, p 0.64; obesity, p 0.72; and macular alterations, p 0.11. In the quantitative variables we find: age, p 0.1; creatinine, p 0.4; GFR, p 0.055; glucose, p 0.001; systolic pressure, p 0.04; and diastolic pressure, p 0.6.

Conclusions: No association was found between the presence of type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension or both with the macular alteration. Obesity represents a risk factor for developing macular alteration.

Keywords: Macular disease; Diabetes mellitus; Arterial Hypertension; Chronic Diseases


The medical contributions that have arisen thanks to the advances in science and technology, have allowed increasing the life expectancy of the adult population, and this has increased the disorders and complications related to chronic-degenerative diseases. According to data provided by the World Health Organization, macular alterations, mainly represented by age-related macular degeneration, represent the first cause of blindness in patients over 60 years in industrialized countries and the third cause of preventable blindness worldwide, only behind cataract and glaucoma [1,2].