3D Modeling of Shape Geometry of Talus of Clubfoot (CTEV)

Research Article

Foot Ankle Stud. 2018; 2(1): 1012.

3D Modeling of Shape Geometry of Talus of Clubfoot (CTEV)

Manak JL*, Nalinaksh VS, Taneja DK and Dhande SG

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shri G. S. Institute of Technology and Science Indore, India

*Corresponding author: Manak JL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shri G. S. Institute of Technology and Science Indore, India

Received: February 20, 2018; Accepted: June 26, 2018; Published: July 03, 2018


Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is applied to the true clubfoot deformity in the newborn babies and the foot is appear like a club and thus has its common name “clubfoot”. It is a historical foot deformity in medical science, where the foot turns inward and points down causing walking on the toes and outer sole of the foot. Some of the bones in clubfoot are abnormal not only in their relationship to each other but also in shape and size. The talus connect leg to the foot, is a major functional element between leg and the foot, and plays a crucial role in movement of the foot. It involve in the formation of three joints with synovial recesses and articulates with the tibia, fibula, calcaneus, and navicular. It consists of a body, a neck, and a head.

The basic aim of this research is to study the shape geometry of talus of clubfoot by developing its true models by considering live patients and comparing it with normal talus. The study will be useful in the development of a non-surgical corrective technique such as for the development of scientific Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) with greater success rate achievement for club foot correction of this historic deformity and is very much useful in the context of child development at national and international platform. The study involve live patients, its MRI data and an image-processing tool. The research involve an interdisciplinary “Bridge” between engineer, radiologist and surgeons for knowing shape geometry where it combines with multidisciplinary research, that include Three Dimensional (3D) modeling, and image analysis.

These specific 3D talus representations provides its shape realization and helps in determining the shape and size of clubfoot talus bones. The representations provides us an opportunity to view talus and analyse the ankle joint geometry that develops a favourable condition for diagnosis and treatment of a historical CTEV foot deformity. The representation also helps orthopaedic surgeons in preoperative surgical planning and consequently in carrying out biomechanical studies. It also provides a platform for finite element analysis.

Keywords: Clubfoot; CTEV; Talus; Modeling


The clubfoot is a historic congenital foot deformity in medical science. The present research is an attempt to use radiological MRI image of live clubfoot patients and develop Three-Dimensional (3D) model of talus to reach the convergence of clubfoot treatment solution for newborn babies [1,2]. The talus bone forms the main connection between the leg and the foot and subject to large loadings that are passed down through the leg into the foot complex via calcaneus and navicular bones [3-5].

The human foot that contain about 26 bones and 57 joints is a very complex joint with many combinations of movements and motion [3,6]. The integration of MRI, medical imaging modality with computer-aided design to produce 3D model is an important area of development. Three-dimensional shape data of both internal and external human body structures (e.g. from CT, MRI, PET/SPECT, Ultrasound, etc.) are employed for 3D model development [7] and most recent anatomical models have been built for bony structures from CT data. However, increasingly soft tissue structures also been built from MRI data. Surgical tool design, customized implant design, customized prosthesis production and customized orthosis production are other developing applications within the medical field [8-11].

Daniel et al reconstructed 3D model of human foot, restricted to cadaver left foot whose different bones were, kept in aligned position with the help of an acrylic frame [12]. Jacob and Patil also reconstructed 3D model of human foot based on conventional plain X-ray images. The geometry of foot’s bones was rather approximate in their model [13]. Many new domains for real 3D modeling of anatomic sculpture require input images from variety of sources like photographs, sketches, computer made images from CT, MRI, Sonography and X-ray images etc [14,15]. 3D modeling of human anatomy is an open area of research and much works reported under this domain for different organ of the human body. 3D model of human foot using CT/MRI etc is, reported in few engineering literatures. Some researchers did excellent works on modeling and study of human foot. From an extensive review of literature of ankle complex biomechanics, few papers have proposed mathematical model for the ankle complex [16-19], but their study was based on either cadaver foot data or on certain mathematic assumptions and in any case their study was not based directly on the live human foot. Udupa K Jayaram and Hirsch BE. did Kinematics analysis of 3D human foot’s joint based on live subject’s MRI scan data. This contributes the actual happening at tarsal joint [15].

The purpose of this study is to study the true shape geometry of live clubfoot patients that will help in developing a non-surgical correction procedure for scientific treatment of clubfoot by determining the critical shape/surfaces/region of interest, about which corrective forces will play a major role. The present paper offers a 3D representation of Clubfoot’s bones specifically talus bone of live patients from his acquired MRI scan data set. This proposed a novel approach for 3D, talus representation of clubfoot of live patients by integrating MRI and medical image processing tools and this provides a computer-aided tool in the form of 3D talus representation. The major outcome of this work is the 3D model of talus that assists in diagnosis and better treatment of a historical CTEV foot deformity.

The paper begins with an introduction, highlighting the area of work along with previous work reviewed on foot, our approach and outcome. The section two describes methodology along with output. The section three present results and discussion followed by section four and five of conclusion and acknowledgment.


The major objective of this paper is to develop 3D representation of bones of Talus of live human Clubfoot Patients by using MRI scan imaging modality and understanding the importance of this 3D shape geometry from medical treatment point of view [20]. The approach comprises of four main phases as shown in flow chart of (Figure 1).

The flow chart shows that in phase I, the volunteer clubfoot subject was prepared for MRI scanning and both foot scanning was started. In phase II, the sequence of MRI scan data were acquire from SIEMEN, MRI machine, in Digital Imaging and Communication (DICOM) format; these acquired data are then processed in medical image processing MIMICS (Materialize Inc.) software in phase III, while in phase IV, the processed data were used to compute 3D Talus bone modelling.