Austin Head Neck Oncol. 2018; 2(1): 1006.
Professor Computense University of Madrid (Ucm), Spain
*Corresponding author: Antonio Bascones-Martinez, Computense University of Madrid (Ucm), Spain
Received: August 21, 2018; Accepted: September 12, 2018; Published: September 19, 2018
Gingival diseases are a group of different disease entities that are localized to the gingiva. They all manifest clinical signs of inflammation and are classified into two main groups: plaque-induced and non-plaque-induced gingival diseases.
The periodontal disease is a group of illnesses affecting the gums and dental support structures. They are caused by certain bacteria found in the bacterial plaque. These bacteria are essential to the onset of illness; however, there are predisposing factors in both the host and the microorganisms that will have an effect on the pathogenesis of the illness. Periodontopathogenic bacterial microbiota is needed, but by itself, it is not enough to cause the illness, requiring the presence of a susceptible host. These diseases have been classified as gingivitis, when limited to the gums, and periodontitis, when they spread to deeper tissues. Classification of periodontal disease has varied over the years. Adults with type II diabetes may show higher rates of gingival inflammation versus adults without diabetes. Almost 64% of diabetics are estimated to have gingival inflammation, in comparison to 50% of non-diabetics.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome or set of syndromes resulting from an absolute or relative insulin deficit. Periodontal disease is an infection that affects the periodontium, the tissues that support the teeth. Research has been conducted into the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease since the 1960s. Numerous epidemiological studies have found a high degree of association between DM and periodontal disease, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.