The Effect of Hydrotherapy Training on Function Occupational Toofal Sanat Consulting Engineers

Research Article

Austin J Musculoskelet Disord. 2017; 4(2): 1044.

The Effect of Hydrotherapy Training on Function Occupational Toofal Sanat Consulting Engineers

Dolatabadi NH¹*, Rahnama N¹ and Tavakol N²

¹Departmnet of Sport Science, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Iran

²Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Poursina Hakim Research Institute for Health Care Development, Isfahan, Iran

*Corresponding author: Heidari Dolatabadi N, Faculty of Sport Science, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Iran

Received: February 06, 2016; Accepted: March 14, 2017; Published: March 20, 2017


The aim of this study was the effect of hydrotherapy training on health function, motion and occupational. Sixty-one full time police personnel of The Islamic Republic of Iran participated in this study. Subject assigned into hydrotherapy (age: 38.4+7.4 years, height: 170.3+6.8 cm, weight: 77.6+8.1 kg). The Nordic Musculo-skeletal Questionnaire was used to study the prevalence of MSD. After primarily evaluations from 61 personnel, thirty personnel identified as having MSD involved in corrective exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week, each session 60 minutes). Before initiation of hydrotherapy and after completion of the course, data were collected. Covariance Test was used to show differences at significance level of (P< 0.05). Regarding MSD, a significant difference between different sites of body was found (P< 0.05); low back (43%), knee (24%) shoulder (13 %) and neck (18 %) were the most prevalent sites. The severity and rate of disorders decreased significantly following 8-weeks training in low back, shoulder, knee and neck areas (P< 0.05). It can be concluded that prevalence of MSD among the police personnel was relatively high and hydrotherapy training was effective to decrease it. So, hydrotherapy for reducing risk level would be recommended.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorders; Hydrotherapy; Pain; Toofal Sanat


Work is an inseparable part of human’s life, but as developing science and technology, increase side effects and occupational illnesses. Among these musculoskeletal illnesses (problems, diseases) allocate main occupational illnesses to itself, and consider the most prevalence diseases [1]. Work environment have a main role in prevalence of many musculoskeletal injuries, even though many of these problems are avoidable with more observing and attention to ergonomic principles or at least can be reduced [2]. In industrial developing countries, work’s place hurts and problems are so serious [3]. Poor work condition and the lack of presenting effective prevention programs from work injuries, increase musculoskeletal disorders rate in industrial developing countries [4]. In industrial developing countries, work places problems and injuries are so serious [3]. Musculoskeletal disorders related to work regarded as a main health, disability and absence from work problems in industrial societies, that allocated about one-third health care costs to itself [5], also causes body’s structure destruction like muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, bones and blood circulating system [6]. These disorders involve wide range of inflammation and destructive problems and illnesses that leads to pain and weakening function [7]. Some body’s area like back, neck, shoulder, arm and forearm are more prone to hurt and in performed studies, lower limbs are considered more [8]. Risk’s factor of musculoskeletal generally includes occupational and non-occupational factors [9].

Occupational risk factors involve physic needs and task execution with inappropriate posture of applied force, repeated motions, duty period and vibration. Non-occupational or individual factors also include age, sex, muscle strength (power), physics readiness and mental-social factors such as time and work pressure, absence of social support and lack of occupational satisfaction [10]. Among aforementioned factors, inappropriate posture regarded as the most important cases [11].

Musculoskeletal disorder work has close relationship with posture during. Neck, back, shoulder, fore arm and knee are organs that exposure to the most side effects resulted from awkward posture. Performing (executing, doing) work with inappropriate posture leads to posture pressure, tiredness, pain; as if it is possible that one force to stop working and take rest. In previous studies, researchers investigate cases such as studying the relationship between neck pain and long- time shoulder pain with posture disorders (lordosis) and inappropriate posture during sitting, relationship between spine’s posture and long time back pain and increasing lordosis of back area, inappropriate posture and relationship with mental pressures and musculoskeletal problems signs, the relationship between (among) posture during sitting and spinal cord curvature, posture, and back pain and usually pointed to significance relationship among the prevalence pf pain and poor posture [12-16].

For instance Soderberg [17] reported that work type and one’s posture during work have a direct effect on increasing or reducing Kyphosis and lordosis arcs [17]. Later (next) studies also show occupational factors effects on creating posture’s disorders and also joint and muscles and bones pain [18] Proceedings of the first seminar on the development of health in works [19].

Back pain is one of the most common healthy problems related to work in industrial developing countries [20]. More than 80% of persons experience this pain at least one time during its life [21]. Therapeutic training widely considered as one of the suitable interventions in back pain treatment And return to work in occupational cares [22]. Therapeutic training more effectively known than to rest on bed [23]. Numerous researches (studies) show therapeutic training effect on reducing back, shoulder and upper limb [24,25].

Generally, physical activities and exercise regarded as one of the basic methods of care in facing with musculoskeletal chronic pains.

One of the common and useful applications of water is hydrotherapy. Hydrotherapy means illness treatment through water. Since it’s remembered, both primary tribes and civilized nations use water for treatment, even wild and pet animals founded that, when they become ill, they should drink water. In fact, human beings realized (understand) hydrotherapy power and potency in providing body’s and spirits relaxation many centuries. Hydrotherapy considered with Iranian, Japanese, Egyptian and Greeks according to many proprieties, and used more. Perhaps easy and more convenient tools that people used for refreshment. Illness, getting lull and convenience, is water. Hydrotherapy is the popular method and contrary to most other methods of muscle refreshment coincident with person’s (individual) satisfaction and happy.

Various training are done in hydrotherapy pools that have a good consequences, such as, walking and running water without the help of various tools are more useful than other activities. Horizontal movement toward front and back (rear) is so useful for arm and hip joints.

Water stream’s temperature and intensity can be variable upon professional application from this method. Water temperature along with water stream can be effective in muscle calm down and their relief. Warm water causing blood to reach damaged tissue.

Increasing blood stream reach oxygen and needed material staff to tissues and excreted cell’s waste material. Warm water cause muscle spasms reducing and relieving pain and increase range of motion. Cold water, cause blood stream slow-down, that this slowdown is effective in reducing inflammation, pain, muscle spasms. Besides positive effects on musculoskeletal system leads to decrease pain feeling. Due to this important that posture in work activities are of importance, and considered as one of the main factors of musculoskeletal disorders, we try to investigate hydrotherapy advantages on health, motion, occupation performance of tofal sanat consulting engineers desk staffs for this purpose, 30 men about 30 men about 30 years old selected randomly and hydrotherapy trainings considered for them [26].

Research’s Methodology

This study of semi-experimental type (kind) performed (done) with pre-test post- test design (model) with one training intervention group and one control group. 30 men selected and an available sampling and upon disorders evaluation criterion. Test’s subjects work 12 hours from 7:00AM until 7:00PM daily.

Elimination criteria from research were current surgery, existing any musculoskeletal problem (like fracture), existing any undetermined pathology also persons (who) knows about its illnesses before performing studying and/ or upon doctor’s recommendation had attempted to carryout measures for treatment, remove among samples before beginning study, all subjects sign testimonial for attending in researcher’s tests and then during one session describe the method of performing tests. For performing pre-test, height and weight of each subjects measured 24 hours before performing training. For occupational evaluations was (with) Nordic questionnaire. In this study, with regards to the main principles of suitable (appropriate) training in this field, special training program are adjusted that applied after expert’s review and approval and presented trainings.

Scheduling of each sport session in water include warm up, main activities and cool down, and performed with or without assistant tools such as special swimming belts, shoes, glove, wrist special bracelet, load (weight) or special water’s dumbbell, water step, swim board, rubber band, ball and etc. as individual, group, double activities. In this research, all the trainings done completely in pool’s deep part from beginning to end during quarterly.

Applied protocol is a training protocol that design upon study’s purpose and include three parts: warm-up training (adaptation with water), main training, cool down that the time of executing training was one hour in each session that the first 15 minutes allocated to tensile training and walking in water, and in next thirty minutes, main trainings means balance training and strength powerful and flexibility in water are done. In the last 15 minutes, subjects (participants) performed returning movements to primary state and cool-down. This protocol executed 3 sessions in weeks and for 8 minutes.

In this study used description statistic for describing statistics of variables and variance analysis test for information analysis. Statistical analysis performed through SPESS16 software. Significance level considered lower than 0.05.

Research’s Findings

61 people selected from tofal sanat consulting engineers company as purposeful (age: 38.4+4, height: 170.3+6.8 cm, weight: 77.6+8.1 kg). For studying musculoskeletal disorders, Nordic questionnaire are used. Information related to skeletal disorders related to neck, back, shoulder and knee point, presented in Table 1. There is significance difference among different areas in body about musculoskeletal disorders prevalence. The most frequent are in back area with 43% frequency, then in knee with 24% frequency, neck with 18% frequency and last in shoulder with 13% frequency (Figure 1). Following table is information related to neck disorders after and before 8 weeks hydrotherapy trainings. According to achieved significance level (z=2.65, p≤0.05) and comparing it on 0.05 level, we have zero hypothesis refusal. It means that after modification trainings, neck disorders significantly reduced and gaining health percentage is 71.4% (Table 2, Figure 2).