High Blood Pressure in Workers of Borgou Departmental Teaching Hospital (Benin): Prevalence and Contributing Factors

Special Article – High Blood Pressure

Austin J Nephrol Hypertens. 2019; 6(2): 1083.

High Blood Pressure in Workers of Borgou Departmental Teaching Hospital (Benin): Prevalence and Contributing Factors

Ahoui S1*, Gounongbe F1, Agboton BL2, Dohou H1, Laleye LOB2, Albert C1, Vigan J2, Guedjo AGW1, Codjo LH1 and Thierry A1

¹Faculty of Medicine, University of Parakou, Benin

²Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey Calavi, Benin

*Corresponding author: Ahoui Séraphin, Faculty of Medicine, University of Parakou, Benin

Received: October 09, 2019; Accepted: November 07, 2019; Published: November 14, 2019


Introduction: Hypertension is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: Study the frequency of High Blood Pressure (HBP) and contributing factors in workers of Borgou Departmental Teaching Hospital (CHUD/B).

Methods: It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study, conducted over three months (1st July to 30th September 2013) and targeted the whole CHUD/B staff members aged 18 years and above. The study population was 373 workers. We sought the contributing factors through a questionnaire providing clinical and behavioral data. Data analysis was carried out in Epi-info and KHI2 test was used to compare the proportions with a statistically significant difference for p ‹ 0.05.

Outcomes: The population mean age was 37 years ±9 years. Sex-ratio was estimated at 0.86. The prevalence of respondents with blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg was 27.10%. The respondents with personal history of hypertension recorded 10.20%. Furthermore, 110 CHUD/B workers or 29.49% had High Blood Pressure and/or a personal history of hypertension. High Blood Pressure was statistically associated with age (p=0.0124), marital status (p=0.0016), seniority in job position (p=0.0008), tobacco use (p=0.03), personal history of hypertension (p=0.000), personal history of diabetes (p=0.000) and family history of hypertension (p=0.020).

Conclusion: HBP frequency is significant in CHUD/B workers. There is need for better prevention of risk factors to contribute to mitigating cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: High blood pressure; Workers; Prevalence; Parakou


Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) across the world [1]. In sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension is a risk factor of heart failure and stroke [2]. The prevalence of hypertension varies from one continent or country to another [1]. Globally, it affects approximately 20% of the world population [1]. In Africa, 20 million people are affected, with a prevalence of 10% to 35% varying according to the country [3,4]. In Benin, the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) has varied from 20.2% in 2001 to 27.5% in 2008 [5]. Hypertension morbidity is on the rise because of its close association with other risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia. Stress, lack of sleep and diet are also causes of high blood pressure. However, health workers are working in such an environment. This study was initiated in 2013 to study the frequency of HBP and the contributing factors in workers of Borgou and Alibori Departmental Teaching Hospital (CHUD/B-A).

Study framework and methods

The study was conducted in Borgou and Alibori Departmental Teaching Hospital (CHUD/B-A) located in the District of Parakou in northern Benin. It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted among health workers, over a period of three months, from 1st July to 30th September 2013. The study included all workers aged 18 years and above, present and selected on voluntary basis, with their informed consent. Those excluded from the study were all individuals unable to respond to the questions or the patients admitted during the study period, including pregnant women and workers who declined to participate.

It was a complete and thorough sampling protocol including all workers meeting the inclusion criteria. However, a minimum population size of 338 individuals was selected through Schwartz formula, from a prevalence of 27.5% HBP reported by the Benin Health Ministry survey and regarded as baseline [6]. The workers enrolment method was voluntary-based. Screening activities were carried out during working days in the morning, and based on the participant’s convenience.

High Blood Pressure (HBP) is the key dependent variable. All individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) =140 mmHg and/ or diastolic blood pressure (DPB) ≥90 mmHg on the survey day are considered as having HBP. The secondary dependent variable is known HBP. Any individual with a history of hypertension (confirmed by a health officer), under antihypertensive therapy or not, is considered as hypertensive. It is a binary variable coded as yes or not. The independent variables included socio-demographic factors (age, sex, marital status and profession) diabetes mellitus medical history, clinical variables (weight and height gain with BMI calculation) and behavioral habits information (tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity). The individual blood pressure was taken while in sitting position after 15 minutes rest with a fully automatic digital upper arm blood pressure monitor validated by the French Society of Hypertension. It was measured in the bare right arm, lying on a table, and palm upwards. For each individual, three measures were taken at five minutes intervals and the average of the last two measures is the final blood pressure selected. Blood pressure is considered high when it is greater than or equal to 140/90mmHg. HBP was classified by stage according to the WHO classification. Physical activity is considered light when it is done at most once weekly for a duration below 30 minutes, moderate when it is done once or twice weekly for at least 30 minutes and intense when it is at least 3 times weekly for an average duration of 30 minutes per session. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight (kg) by height squared (m²). BMI threshold greater than or equal to 30 kg/m² is defined as obesity, while overweight is considered when the threshold is between 25 and 30 kg/m², normal BMI ranges from 18.5 kg/m² to 24.9kg/m² and underweight is defined by a value below 18.5 kg. Both overweight and obesity include body fat. Information on work-related stress was provided through a declaration. More so, information on the use of tobacco in all its forms was provided through a declaration.

Data collection technique was a well-structured personal interview with the respondent and direct measuring of physical parameters after his/her oral informed consent. The data collected were entered through Epi Data 3.1 French version, and data analysis was carried out using Epi Info 3.5.1-2008 version. The mean values are presented with their standard deviation. The comparison of the two proportions is performed using unadjusted chi-square test. For any probability below 5% (p ‹ 0.05), an association is statistically significant between two variables.


General characteristics of the respondents

Description of the study population: In total, 373 health workers took part in the study. This figure included 201 (53.89%) females representing 0.86 as sex ratio. The mean age was 37 years ±9 years (extreme values of 19 and 57 years). The most represented age group was 25-34 years. The respondents’ seniority ranged from 1 to 33 years with 10±6 years as mean value, and seniority in job position ranged from 1 to 30 years with 10±5 years as mean value. Table 1 highlights the distribution of the respondents according to sex, age, profession, marital status, seniority, seniority in job position and the distance from the respondent home to his/her workplace.