Guaraná Supplementation Modulates Tryglicerides and Some Metabolic Blood Biomarkers in Overweight Subjects

Research Article

Ann Obes Disord. 2016; 1(1): 1004.

Guaraná Supplementation Modulates Tryglicerides and Some Metabolic Blood Biomarkers in Overweight Subjects

Suleiman L¹, Barbisan F³, Ribeiro EE², Moresco RN³, Bochi G³, Marta Duarte MMF³, Antunes KT¹, Mânica-Cattani MF¹, Unfer TC¹, Azzolin VF³, Griner J¹ and Da Cruz IBM¹*

¹Programa De Pós-Graduação Em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Universidade Federal De Santa Maria, Brazil

²Universidade Aberta Da Terceira Idade, Universidade Do Estado Do Amazonas, Brazil

³Programa De Pós-Graduação Em Farmacologia, Universidade Federal De Santa Maria, Brazil

*Corresponding author: Da Cruz IBM, Programa De Pós-Graduação Em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro De Ciências Naturais E Exatas, Universidade Federal De Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, Prédio 19, Santa Maria- RS, Brazil

Received: April 05, 2016; Accepted: April 26, 2016; Published: May 03, 2016


Background: Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) commonly used in energetic beverage presents some functional properties including antiobesogenic effects. However, it is an open question if guaraná presents effect on atherosclerosis risk blood biomarkers (glycaemia, lipid, nutritional, oxidative-inflammatory), similar to other foods rich in catechins and caffeine such as green tea and coffee.

Material and Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, singleblind, clinical trial to test if a daily minimal guaraná supplementation (90 mg) could affect lipid, glucose and other metabolic blood biomarkers. Guaraná´s effects on oxidative markers were also evaluated. A total of 14 healthy overweight volunteers were selected considering similar lifestyle and clinical aspects. Fasting blood collection was collected before intervention and volunteers were oriented to intake capsules guaraná power (90mg/day) during 14 days. Blood collection after 7 and 14 days were performed in order to evaluate guarana´s effect on blood variables. In this period, volunteers were advised to abstain from any weight-loss program and to not drink caffeinate beverages. The same subjects also consumed placebo capsule during 14 days after a 45 days of washout.

Results: Guaraná supplementation significantly lowered the effect on triglycerides levels, uric acid, and oxidative blood biomarkers. On the contrary, an increase in blood albumin and total protein levels was also observed.

Conclusion: The present study suggests which short-term use of guaraná supplementation could causes positive effects on some human blood cardiovascular risk biomarkers, mainly blood triglycerides and this effect seems to be independent of weight loss.

Keywords: Guaraná; Cardiovascular; Ischemic; Triglycerides; Inflammation; Oxidative metabolism


Obesity has become a major worldwide health mainly, because it increases cardiovascular risk through risk factors, such as increased fasting plasma triglycerides, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, elevated blood glucose and insulin levels, and high blood pressure [1]. Evidence suggests that foods rich in polyphenolic and alkaloids compounds, like caffeine, catechins and Epigallocatechin- 3-Gallate (EGCG), as coffee, green tea and yerba mate, present antiobesogenic effect, as well as action on lipid and inflammatory metabolism [1-4].

Guaraná, an Amazon native fruit, has gained popularity in developed countries, like the U.S., because is used to provide caffeine or energy boosts, such as energy and sports drinks [5-7]. This plant contains about twice the caffeine found in coffee beans (about 2-4.5% caffeine in guaraná seeds compared with 1–2% for coffee beans).In addition, guaraná chemical matrix also that presents other methylxanthines such as theobromine, theophylline. Guaraná also has saponins, catechins, epicatechins, and proanthocyanidols, along with other compounds, in trace concentrations in this nutritional matrix [8,9].

Despite the use as caffeine source, some previous investigations also suggested that guarana isused in some herbal preparations, presents positive effects on weight loss, increasing basal energy expenditure [10-13]. Moreover, previous investigations have suggested that guaraná could also positively affect lipid metabolism [14,15].

To test this hypothesis we performed a controlled study to test if the minimum daily guaraná dose (100 mg/day) supplementation could modulate blood biomarkers associated with lipid, glucose and oxidative blood biomarkers of healthy overweight adult.

Subjects and Methods

The study was undertaken in 14 volunteers (six male and eight female) with a mean age of 37.1 years old. All participated voluntarily in the study after giving their consent. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, No 23081.015838/2011-10). They were recruited in Rosário do Sul city, localized in the Southern Brazilian State (Rio Grande do Sul). They were not non-smokers, recreationally active, with Body Mass Index (BMI) > 23 and < 30 kg/m and without chronic morbidities. Body weight, height BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured according to previously described by Krewer et al. [14].

A crossover, controlled intervention protocol was performed and divided in 4 consecutive periods (Figure 1). The protocol started with an initial washout period (7 days) during which the participants were instructed not to deviate from their regular habits and to maintain their normal diet and exercise level, avoiding medications and alcohol intake. The volunteers were advised to not ingest foods rich in caffeine such as coffee, tea, chimarrao, a traditional yerba mate beverage, and other nutritional supplements that could have an influence on biochemical variables analyzed. In the second period, the volunteers were supplemented with guaraná capsules during 14 days. The third wash-out period (75 days), the volunteers did not receive any supplementation, and they were advised to follow their everyday lifestyle. In the fourth period, the volunteers were supplemented again during 14 days with placebo capsules. The volunteers were informed that they would receive guaraná supplementation along with placebo. However, it was not informed to them whether supplementation with guaraná would occur in the first or second phase of the intervention. Fasting blood samples were also collected at baseline and after each period. At baseline and after each intervention period, a medical examination and a nutrient intake and physical activity, along with structured questionnaires were made.