Marine Sea Cucumber Saponins and Diabetes

Review Article

Austin Pancreat Disord. 2017; 1(1): 1002.

Marine Sea Cucumber Saponins and Diabetes

El Barky AR*, Ali EMM and Mohamed TM

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*Corresponding author: Amira Ragab EL Barky, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

Received: February 02, 2017; Accepted: February 20, 2017; Published: February 22, 2017


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia. DM resulted from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both of them. The chronic hyperglycemia can lead to diabetic complication which is considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Marine invertebrates, sea cucumber have an impressive profile of valuable bioactive compounds, for instance, holothurians that exhibit a wide range of biological activities and have many therapeutic effects. This review highlights the valuable bioactive saponin on the complication of diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes; Saponin, Hyperglycaemia; Sea cucumber


DM: Diabetes Mellitus; IL-6: Interleukin-6; STZ: Streptozotocin; TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia. It is the most common disease among patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is extremely associated with diabetes, with high prevalence in both types I and II. The incidence of diabetes caused by exocrine pancreatic disease appears to be underestimated and may comprise 8% or more of the general diabetic patient population [1]. DM resulted from defects in the pancreas where insulin secretion is not produced enough or cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced or both of them, resulting in high blood sugar action. The chronic hyperglycemia resulted from diabetes can lead to irreversible damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs [2]. Diabetes is classified into four categories (Figure 1)[2]. The major two categories which are common to all of the people is Type I is also known as Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, which is identified by absolute insulin reduction. The main causes of type I diabetes are immune or idiopathic causes [3], whereas Type II diabetes the second category is known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, it is a challenging metabolic disorder. Its etiology is related to several causes, for instance, a significant loss of insulin producing, beta cell mass via advanced programmed cell death and disrupted cellular autophagy. There is also strong index that β cells are dynamically active cells, which, under specific conditions such as obesity, can increase in size and thus increase insulin secretion in type 2 DM [4].