Identification of KUP/HAK/KT Potassium Transporter Gene Family in Wild Carrot (Daucus carota) and Its Phylogenetic Analysis

Research Article

Austin J Pharmacol Ther. 2021; 9(3).1140.

Identification of KUP/HAK/KT Potassium Transporter Gene Family in Wild Carrot (Daucus carota) and Its Phylogenetic Analysis

Mazhar MW*, Batool MS, Saleem T, Mahmood J, Saif S, Waqas N, Tahirv H and Mazhar F

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government Collage University, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Muhammad Waqar Mazhar, Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government Collage University, 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan

Received: May 11, 2021; Accepted: June 04, 2021; Published: June 11, 2021


Potassium is essential macronutrient of plant. It is uptaken by plant through channels and transporters. Plants specie genomes contains a number of KUP/ HAK/KT transporters having the primary function to mediate K+ fluxes. In this study,we have identified 13 gene members of KUP/HAK/KT transporter gene family. In most of the plant species, these genes have been characterized but uncharacterized in D. carota. This study has been done to identify KUP/HAK/KT gene family in D. carota plant species to study its phylogeny. This gene family is important for potassium uptake and play an important role in translocation, osmotic potential regulation, plant development and growth. Different tools like MEGA 7.0.21, pfam, SMART and NCBI-BLASTp has been used to characterize the gene family. This study covers the phylogeny and evolution of KUP/HAK/KT transporters in D. carota with reference to A. thaliana.

Keywords: K+ ion; A. thaliana; D. carota; KUP/HAK/KT; Phylogeny


Potassium ion (K+) being the essential macronutrient is found very important for various aspects of plant life. In plants, potassium concentration may reach up to 8% of dry cell weight. Potassium is the most plentiful cation that maintains the electrical charge balance and transport of sugar and nitrate in plant cells [1]. It may act as protein synthesis stabilizer or enzyme activator. It is involved in metabolic and physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, cellular osmoregulation and respiration [2]. potassium deficiency highly affects the plant growth and development as they pertain many abiotic stresses like salth stress, drought stress and cold stress [3]. Potassium is found in bulk amount in earth crust and the uptake of potassium from soil is not as good as it to be because potassium is not in ionic form. The concentration of potassium at root surface is mostly lower than in bulk soil solution which may fall down to μM range. To enhance the potassium uptake, plant have developed various mechanism for potassium acquisition with >1000-fold concentration gradients [4].

Usually there are two mechanisms for potassium uptake in plants. These are high affinity transporter system via potassium transporters and low affinity potassium transporters via potassium channels. On the basis of function and structure, potassium transporters are divided into five families: 1) shaker channels; 2) TDK (tandem porek+; 3) HAK (high affinity K+) /KUP (K+ uptake permease) /KT (K+ transporter); 4) HKT transporters; 5) CPAs (cation protonantiporters). KUP/HAK/KT is the largest and widely distributed family in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The homology with bacterial KUP and fungal HAK transporters show that the plants KUP/HAK/ KT transporter members AtKUP1 and HvHAK1 were first cloned from Arabidopsis and Barley. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 13, 27 and 27 KUP/HAK/KT genes were identified in Arabidopsis, Rice and Maize respectively [5]. Mutation analysis has shown that the 8th transmembrane domain and C-terminus of KUP/HAK/KT gene family has a key role in determining the K+ transport capacity. A series of KUP/HAK/KT genes were identified in past decades and a number of physiological roles of these genes were characterized in plant species. At present, KUP/HAK/KT genes have been identified in other species like poplar (Populus trichocarpa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and soybean (Glycine max) [6] (Table 1).