Healthcare Employees Occupational Health and Safety Conditions in Saudi Arabia; A Mini Literature Review

Mini Review

Austin J Public Health Epidemiol. 2022; 9(4): 1133.

Healthcare Employees’ Occupational Health and Safety Conditions in Saudi Arabia; A Mini Literature Review

Alsharari ASD¹* and Parentela GM²

¹Head Nurse ER, Tubarjal Hospital, Ministry of Health, Tubarjal, Saudi Arabia

²Assistant Professor, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding author: Abdullah Suwailem Alsharari, Head Nurse - ER, Tubarjal Hospital, Tubarjal City, Aljouf Region, Saudi Arabia

Received: September 22, 2022; Accepted: October 26, 2022; Published: November 02, 2022


Healthcare workers face several threats when they practice their daily work. These factors can impact their occupational health and safety and negatively impact patient health care by reducing quality health care in the health sector. The purpose of this study is to provide a mini-review of the previous studies about some factors that can considerably impact occupational health and safety for the healthcare team. These factors are physical and psychological aspects. The authors individually completed a literature review for this article via an independent study followed by a collaborative discussion. The authors researched available sources to provide some results about these factors and how they can reduce the level of occupational health and safety for the health team provider and the safe and sound delivery of quality care for the patient. The results of this mini-review indicated that the physical and psychological aspects of the health team workers significantly impact the level of occupational health and safety, which can dramatically affect patient care. Therefore, early and proper educational courses and stress roles are necessary to reduce or even eliminate these factors, which cause negatively influence the occupational health and safety of the staff the patient care, as well as increase the burden on the health organization. This requires a multidisciplinary management approach to meet occupational health and safety requirements. Future research should concentrate on these factors to increase the health care provider’s awareness about maintaining their occupational health and safety during their duty and examine some policy that helps reduce these impacts.

Keywords: Health care workers; Factors impact; Occupational health and safety; Saudi Arabia; Review article


Healthcare employees confront a variety of obstacles that might affect their everyday job. Maintaining workplace health and safety is one such difficulty. Most establishments that provide healthcare services believe a safe workplace to be essential in ensuring the safety and quality of services offered to patients. Understanding the elements that affect workplace safety and health can help you attain workplace safety. It is vital to raise healthcare professionals’ awareness of the barriers to achieving optimal occupational and health protection in the workplace to guarantee full knowledge of how to deal with these variables when they arise. Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) aims to develop and maintain a high level of physical, mental, and social health for employees and safeguard healthcare professionals from hazardous causes while on the job. OHS also attempts to establish a work environment tailored to employees’ psychological and physiological capacities (Amponsah-Tawiah & Dartey-Baah, 2011). As a result, this study will explain and detail several elements that may significantly impact the OHS of Saudi Arabian healthcare professionals. This study will explore these issues by reviewing prior research done in Saudi Arabia and the consequences of these studies, such as the impact of physical and psychological aspects on OHS. Finally, this study will recommend reducing the risks and hazards that healthcare employees may face in their regular job.


Database Searching

Database searching was conducted via access to the KSU e-library. I used the keyword to find my topic about health safety and occupational health safety for health workers. I used an advanced search through KSU e-LIBRARY, searched on the title and abstract, and read the relevant topic by reading the abstract to know about my case.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

This article focuses on the factors that can significantly impact the occupational health and safety of the healthcare worker, so we include all studies that have talked about these factors. Also, we included the article and research, which are not more than five years, so most of our studies we concentrate on being not more than two years conducted, not old. Finally, we are looking at a survey conducted in Saudi Arabia.

Study Characteristics

All journal articles were examined for the status of publications, especially the quartiles ranking of the journals via SJR, and all were found to be within q1, q2, and q4.

Assessment of Risk of Bias

Ethical approval and participation consent are not applicable since this research does not include experimentation on animals or human subjects, so there is no need to assess the risk of bias.

Aim of Review

The purpose of the review is to identify the factors that can considerably impact reducing the level of occupational health and safety for the healthcare worker according to the immediate past publications.

Results and Discussion

Impact of Psychological Factors

Burnout is thought to have a psychological effect on the OHS of healthcare workers. According to Majrabi and Alasmee (2021), Burnout is a psychiatric condition that manifests as a long-term response to continuous interpersonal pressures at work. Researchers intended to explore how exhaustion, resiliency, and safety culture influenced staff nurses; from June through August 2018, 119 nurses were randomly selected using convenience sampling. Emotional weariness, depersonalization, and personal achievement were all examined in the study. According to the findings, 45.6% of nurses expressed increased emotional tiredness, 35.5% reported a high level of depersonalization, and only 15.9% reported a high level of personal success. The study found that the findings strongly suggested the prevalence of these burnout characteristics, which have a detrimental impact on nurses’ and patients’ safety and resilience and OHS [8].

In a study [7], the researchers determined the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on doctors’ mental health. A cross-sectional and survey-based strategy was utilized in the study. Five hundred twentynine physicians from various locations in Saudi Arabia were included in the study’s sample. Regarding the study’s findings, the researchers divided the participants into high-risk workplaces like the ER, ICU, and COVID-19 isolation wards and low-risk workplaces linked to COVID-19 exposure. Around 70% of those who participated worked in a COVID-19-designated healthcare facility. The data revealed that the most prevalent sensations among physicians were a concern, isolation, and fear: 67.5% (357) had worry feeling, 56.9% (310) had a sense of isolation, and 49.7% (263) had fear feeling. Physicians over the age of 60 were less likely to feel alone. Furthermore, female doctors were more likely to suffer worry and stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. At the same time, physicians who had previously been exposed to similar stressful situations were less likely to acquire dread and anxiety. The COVID-19 outbreak has substantially impacted doctors’ mental health in Saudi Arabia. Physicians’ psychological reactions to the epidemic were predicted by their age, gender, and experience in similar stressful situations.

Citation: Alsharari ASD and Parentela GM. Healthcare Employees’ Occupational Health and Safety Conditions in Saudi Arabia; A Mini Literature Review. Austin J Public Health Epidemiol. 2022; 9(4): 1133.