Rare Findings and Simple Surgical Procedure: Secondary Impingement with Plica Syndrome in the Dominant Shoulder of a Dancer - A Case Study

Case Presentation

Austin Sports Med. 2017; 2(2): 1016.

Rare Findings and Simple Surgical Procedure: Secondary Impingement with Plica Syndrome in the Dominant Shoulder of a Dancer - A Case Study

Wanke EM¹*, Ohlendorf D², Leslie-Spinks J², Groneberg DA¹ and Pieper HG3

¹Institute of Occupational, Social- and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany

²School of Performing Arts, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

³Department of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery and Sports Trauma, Paracelsus Klinik, Bremen, Germany

*Corresponding author: Wanke EM, Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany

Received: July 18, 2017; Accepted: August 11, 2017; Published: August 18, 2017


An internationally successful (world champion), 32 year-old female formation dancer is presented with chronic pain in her right shoulder joint. A plica-like - locally irritating-cord-shaped in duration at the intersection region of the long biceps tendon was diagnosed. In addition, Hyperlaxity with secondary dorsocranial impingement symptoms, as well as secondary chronic subacromial overuse resulting from dance-sport-specific overuse of the right shoulder - comparable with overhead sport loads - were diagnosed. Following an in comparison to other surgical procedures technically easy arthroscopic resection of the plica-like structure, synovectomy and subacromial bursectomy, a symptom-free load-bearing capacity, and the ability to resume sports and competitive activities could rapidly be achieved through postoperative additional musculo-coordinative stabilization. This case shows that sometimes comparatively rare reasons for chronic shoulder pain exist that can be easily treated by arthroscopic surgery.

Keywords: Dance Sport; Chronic Overuse; Secondary Impingement; Plica Syndrome


Competitive and performance-orientated Latin American formation dance sport ranks among the technical compositional types of sports. Due to its rapidly growing popularity it has evolved since the fifties to its present performance discipline with a competition system (league system) and annual national and international championships.

Despite its high degree of popularity, and a movement profile favouring injuries, there have still been few studies of the health hazards and damages in Latin American formation dance.

Each formation team consists of six to eight couples, characterized by a uniform appearance. The aim of the couples is to move in a synchronic, precise and basically symmetrical manner around the dance floor [1].

Formation-dance-specific loading

Unlike single couple dance, presentation lasts a total of 6 minutes, with 4.5min, for the main, rating-relevant, part. Particularly during the fast Latin American dances (e.g. Jive), cardiovascular stress rises to near maximal intensity, with lactate concentrations within exhaustion range [2-4].

Over and above choreographic elements (Figure 1) and dance steps which are basically identical with single couple dance, formation dance is characterized by numerous specifically rated steps of virtuosity (e.g. Lankenau-Pirouette, walked or spun round about, pot stirrer). In all these special elements, the steps are initiated and finished by the male dancer. In addition, these movements are performed unilaterally, with the right arm of the male dancer functioning as the holding arm. This is accompanied by heavy loading of the right arm and shoulder girdle of both dance partners.