Sport Injury during Premiere League of Ethiopia

Research Article

Austin Sports Med. 2020; 5(1): 1035.

Sport Injury during Premiere League of Ethiopia

Sorate BA* and Paramvir Singh

Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi Uni. Patiala, India

*Corresponding author: Sorate B. PhD Scholar at Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi Uni. Patiala, India

Received: May 05, 2020; Accepted: June 05, 2020; Published: June 12, 2020


Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate sports injuries of football players.

Design: A prospective cohort study design was employed.

Method: Using censuses method 469 male football players from 16 teams were participated. F-MARC form was used to record players injuries sustained during training and matches. Functional components of protective equipment’s questionnaire and physical fitness tests were used. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, such as frequency, percentage, mean and SD was used. Non-parametric tests like Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman Rank order correlation employed.

Results: The most common injured body location during training was Thigh (52; 32.5%), followed by knee (39; 24.4%), Ankle (17; 10.6%), Groin (15; 9.4%) and Achilles tendon (8; 5%) and also during match, Thigh (56; 29.3%) followed by knee (34; 17.8%), Ankle (25; 13.1%), Groin (17; 8.9%) and the Lower Leg (15; 7.9%). The three most commonly injured body locations were thigh (108; 30.8%), knee (73; 20.8%) and Ankle (42; 12%). The playing position has indicated that, there was no a significant relationship with injured body part (r = -0.091, r2 = 0.0083, P < 0.089). Moreover, team Performance/success (rank) has showed insignificant relationship with injured body parts (r= -0.359, r2 = 0.013, P < 0. 0.173) and with types of injury (r=0.150, r=0.0225, P <0.580).

Conclusion: The playing positions have contribution for injury occurrences. Protective equipment like short wear and weight of footwear have contribution for injury occurrences. Similarly, flexibility has effect on existence of injury.

Keywords: Football; Players; Premier League; Sport Injury


Epidemiology of sports injury on male footballer has been documented that injury incidences were 10-35 injuries per 1000 game hours [1]. In overall rate of injuries in contact sports were assessed that 10 to 15 injuries per 1000 playing hours [2]. Those injuries are the most common cause of loss of training and match time and need proper prevention approaches [3]. In particular, the incidence of injuries in professional male soccer ranges from 2.1 to 19.2 injuries per 1000 hours of exposure, being much higher in matches (from 13 to 78.3 injuries per 1000 hours of match exposure) than in training (from 1.5 to 11.8 injuries per 1000 hours of training exposure) [4- 6]. This incidence is much more pronounced in tournament matches with a national team, and can reach up to 101 injuries per 1000 hours of match exposure [5,7].

In professional level, the players may place at the greater risk of injury in the blend of maximum physical demands together with situations in which players derived into contact, technical advancement [8] and congested calendars [9]. A specific relationship between injury and player position has been referred as the greater the activity and covered distance during matches, may have the higher injury risk (due to rushing/slowing activity) [10]. According to the positional role defenders (34.3%) and attackers (31.4%) registered higher than other players (e.g.: goalkeepers (GK), 9.8%). The back defence line players accounts 36% and centre field players

we call them midfield players account 35% of injuries most frequently than the forward players or strikers [11]. Higher incidence of lower extremity injuries are sustained by defenders followed by midfielders, attackers and GK. Midfielders and attackers seem to be at higher risk of thigh muscle injuries [12,13]. Injury risks pattern of goalkeepers do not shadow as field players like striker, midfield and defence players and an increased age [11]. Goalkeepers (who perform less running, more ball reaching, and more collisions with goalposts) show a higher rate of upper extremity, trunk and head injuries [14].

In the sense of epidemiology study, there have been a number of prospective cohort studies exploring in Asian countries the injuries sustained in soccer players since the end of the 1970s, and an agreement declaration on injury definitions and data collection procedures [15] appears to have improved the consistency and quality of research within the field. The study conducted in Africa, injury incidence and exposure time of professional football clubs in the premier league during football season of South Africa was conducted and 130 injuries were recorded in the season [16].

While, studies has not been conducted so far on the subject in Ethiopia. Therefore, the researchers aimed specifically to determine risk exposures and the mean absence time of training and match, due to injury, to show injury prevalence, incidence and patterns throughout the competitive season, in training session and match, to find out injury incidence differences between associated risk factors, to determine the relationship of injury incidences and associated Risk Factors and to examine the association of injury occurrences with team and players performance.

Materials and Methods

Design: Prospective cohort study design was employed throughout the competitive season from November 2017 to July 2018 of Ethiopian premier league football players.

Subjects: The subjects of the study was selected using a Census method refers to complete enumeration of all 469 male football players who signed and played in 2017/18 season from 16 teams of Ethiopian premier league. The players were well informed about the aim and the design of the study prior to the study; they engaged a verbal informed consent for participation.

The majority of the players were found in professional playing age category which is between 16 – 20 years old was 15 (3.2%), 21 – 25 years old was 175 (37.3%), 26 – 30 year old was 203 (43.3%) and 31 - 35 years old was 76 (16.2%). The player stature ranged from 1.60 - 1.92 m, with a mean value of 1.75 ± 0.05 m, the average weight of the players was 69.37 ± 6.37 kg, and ranged between 58 - 90 kg and BMI was ranged from 18.20 - 27.00 kg/m2, with a mean value of 22.57 ± 1.47 kg/m2. The players playing positions; 24.3% (114) were strikers, 31.8% (149) were midfielders, 32.8% (154) were defenses and the remaining 11.1% (52) were goalkeepers.

Instruments: FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC’s) form was used in order to record players injury status during training and match [15]. Functional component of protective equipment questionnaire was used to assess the comfortably attractive appearance (aesthetic components) [17], overall satisfaction [18] and functional components (comfort, fit, mobility, and protection) of protective equipment’s (Jersey, short, socks, shin guard and footwear) [19]. In line with this physical fitness tests were assessed in preseason from conveniently available participant (Body Composition, Flexibility (Modified Sit and Reach test), Abdominal Strength and Endurance (one minute sit-up test), Arm Strength and Endurance (Press-up test), Explosive Power (Vertical Jump test), Agility (Illinois Agility Test) and Speed (35 meter sprint test)).

Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, such as frequency, percentage, central tendency (mean) and dispersion test (standard deviation) was used to determine average exposure time and the mean absence time of training and match, due to injury, baseline information and players performance. The nonparametric tests or distribution-free tests was employed for our data don’t follow a specific distribution. Therefore, Kruskal-Wallis test was used to find out the differences of injury incidence between age groups, BMI categories and playing positions. Spearman Rank order correlation was also used to identify relationship between injury and associated Risk Factors (age, height, weight, BMI, preventive equipment (tops, shorts, socks, shin guard and footwear), playing position, risk exposure time, team performance (rank) and players’ performance). The significance level was set at p<0.05. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 23 software.


Injury exposure time

The total coached sessions was 4444.21 hrs, divided between training (85.5%; 3800 hrs) and Match (14.5%; 644.21 hrs). Each player was exposed to an average of 275.07 ± 68.67 h. The minimum registered exposure was 92.67 h and the maximum was 336.50 h, corresponding to a range of 243.83 h. Every player was exposed, in average, to 234.92 ± 59.78 h of training, from 77.67 h to 291.50 h (range of 213.83 h). Match exposure showed a range of 30 h (minimum: 15.0 h and maximum: 45.0 h) and a mean of 40.15 ± 9.39 h of exposure. This can show that the mean training and match exposure times per player during the season were 234.92 hours and 40.15 hours, respectively.

Protective equipment

The players reported satisfaction of functional components of garment types with fit (51.8%), colour (51.6%), attractiveness (47.1%), comfort (46.7%), fibre content (40.9%) and brand names (40.5%). The remaining attributes rated pleasing to others (38.2), construction quality (37.7%) and fiberic quality only a 35.2% or less level of satisfaction. The data indicates that the respondents were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with size assortment (35.8%) and styles (38.2%) of their uniform. Overall, impact protection in soccer protective garments appears as expected; soccer players indicated satisfaction with impact protection of tops (46.7%), shorts (47.1%), socks (57.6%), shin guards (62.5%) and footwear (73.1%). The result of this study indicates that the players satisfaction in impact of protection were higher in socks, shin guards and footwear, whereas medium satisfaction were reported in tops and shorts.

Players baseline performance

Table 1 show the players’ body fat in % with a mean value of 10.19 ± 4.15 %. Flexibility was test was assessed using modified sit and reach sit test, the players scored a mean value of 11.85 ± 8.78 cm. The player abdominal strength and endurance were scored a mean value of 54.54 ± 13.65 sit ups/min. whereas, arm strength and endurance scored a mean value of 41.07 ± 16.02 press ups/min. The explosive power of the players was scored a mean value of 51.16 ± 8.19 cm. The agility of the players was scored a mean value of 16.17 ± 0.83 sec. and also the speed of the players was scored a mean value of 4.95 ± 0.30 sec.