Adv Res Text Eng. 2020; 5(2): 1050.
Alam SMM¹, Islam S²* and Akter S²
1Department of Textile Machinery Design and Maintenance, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Bangladesh
2Department of Fabric Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Bangladesh
*Corresponding author: Shariful Islam, Department of Fabric Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Tegjaon, Dhaka, 1208, Bangladesh
Received: May 29, 2020; Accepted: June 19, 2020; Published: June 26, 2020
The aim of this paper is to review the sustainability of natural dyes. Natural dyes are cheap, easily obtainable, decomposable and plenty in nature. These dyes are collected from nature and no need to apply manufacturing process to prepare them. These dyes are easily decomposed in nature after using and they do not pollute the environment while destroying them after end use. Clothing dyed with natural dyes provide excellent feel of nature that cannot be obtained after using synthetic dyes. Due to their excellent nontoxic and non-allergenic characteristics, people of all ages can use the clothing dyed with natural dyes. These dyes do not do any harm to the baby skin. They have wonderful capabilities to protect humane from ultra-violate radiation and extreme sun burning. Shades created by natural dyes are shooting to humane eye, comfortable and soft feel. They produce exceptional color ideas and these shades are normally harmonious. Extensive research can be carried out on green dyes to interchange toxic synthetic petroleum based dyes. It has been a matter of discussion that synthetic dyes give a superior glow and a range of colors where the natural dyes give only limited or dull colors shades. Natural dyes are components those provide the feel of superior sensual experience. This paper opens possible ways for the scholars to further study in this field.
Keywords: Sustainability; Ecofriendly; Biodegradable; Healthier; Nonallergenic; Harmonious; Non hazardous
There is a great importance of this paper in the textile wet processing zone since, dyeing of fabrics with natural dye is always exciting. Different scholars worked related to this paper at different times where literature review exposed different results. Some scholars reported that Natural dyes are prepared from numerous plant-based, mineral, and animal products, comprising vegetables, fruits, wood, bark, berries, lichen, roots, plants, grasses, nuts, and kernels as well as creatures, shellfish and nonliving complexes . Considering the poisonous properties of the synthetic dyes, there has been a rehabilitated effort to learning and implementing the different natural dyes in the dyestuff industry. Chiefly, there are three groups of natural dyes. One group is obtained from vegetables, plants or trees like indigo .
Second group is obtained from animal sources titled Cochineal, and the balance group is obtained from mineral that is termed as Ocher. Natural dyes can offer the much needed substitute to the intricate world of chemical dyes . The methods used to prepare these dyes comprise the application of a mordant, required chemical and auxiliaries . A mordant is a substance used needed for the colors from the plants to connect with the fibers of the cloth .
Mordants are normally acids or metal salts like as copper sulfate. Some dyes are called as functional dyes, like cochineal, don’t requisite a mordant since they naturally cover one, typically tannin . The fabrics those are needed to be colored are generally festered in a mordant solution before the dyeing procedure instigates . The textile manufacturing industries are the second most contaminating industry in the ecosphere .
Synthetic dyes donate to a foremost part of this contamination, with approximately 20 percent of worldwide water pollution being related to the textile dyeing procedures . The main funders to this problematic are the use of non-biodegradable petroleum-based dyes to dye textiles, the use of poisonous materials to fix colorants on the textiles, and the relief of great extents of these colorants and complex agents into the nearby environment . Figure 1 shows the ecofriendly natural dyeing components obtained from fruits.
Figure 1: Ecofriendly natural dyeing components obtained from fruits.
China shut down most of the enterprises creating synthetic textile dyes after tough new lawmaking was ratified . In the awaken of those conclusions and severe environmental guidelines, productions are now looking into greener methods to color garments . A practical substitute to synthetic pigments may be the normal colors mined from recyclable plant sources. Nonetheless, poisonous fixation agents still want to be used with these dyes. Overall, textile and fashion productions are now in hunt of substitute coloring approaches .
To report the issue of contamination and waste of water, many tailored brands have endorsed raising consciousness on the special effects of the garment industry on the surroundings . This program had led to brands choosing for natural dyes and collaborating with factories to diminish the effects of the clothing industry on the earth . Natural dyes have become the noticeable clarification to grab the issue of ecological deprivation.
Natural dyes comes from natural sources like plants, animals, fruits, insects, and minerals etc. now a days natural dyes are used in commercial basis to dye the textile materials . Natural dyes have held untold prominence in our lives for thousands of years, as long as not only artistic fulfillment but practical uses as well . The eldest and most extensively used dye is indigo that has been used in countries for the last four thousand years. Natural dyes are colorants obtained from vegetables, plants, animals, or minerals .
Also, organic sources such as vegetables and mildews offer the preponderance of natural dye invention . Though natural dyes were prevalent for humans, it rapidly fell out of courtesy due to the comfort of use and erraticism of synthetic dyes . Indigo dye is a biological compound with a characteristic blue colored shade. Indigo is a natural dye taken out from plants, and this procedure is significant cautiously since blue dyes were once exceptional . Indigo dyeing process is based on the vegetables derived from and these dyes are somewhat have very good environmental impacts .
The primary uses of indigo dyes are on the cotton yarns those are mainly for the manufacture of denim cloth for blue jeans or indigo denim . Denim industries are extensively dependent on indigo dyes those are derived from natural sources . Various scholars proposed various techniques for dyeing with natural dyes . The coloring of textile materials depends on dyeing strictures which are fiber structure, fabric constructions, composition used and clothing end use and also on the temperature, time and pH of the dye bath along with dye molecule properties . Figure 2 shows the sustainable dyeing components obtained from flowers.
Figure 2: Sustainable dyeing components obtained from flowers.
Natural dyes are have fewer presence of reactive groups in their terminal part to react with the fibers and the dye molecules, therefore, they provide very less color fastness properties . The cellulosic fibers are somewhat tough to dye with natural color since; they have very poor attraction and substantively . Due to this scarcity of reactivity with the fibers and dyes mordents are mandatory .
Natural dyes are compounds those are abundant in nature with their ecofriendly characteristics. These dyes are recyclable, biodegradable or decomposable in nature. They are easily composed in soil after end use due to their sustainability.
1. Insignificant Ecological Influence: As, these dyes come from natural sources; they are not harmful to the environment, that makes it so attractive for customers. Natural dyes are ecofriendly; biodegradable and disposing them don’t cause pollution .
2. Sustainability: Natural dyes are renewable, obtained in nature and they are sustainability too. These dyes are ecofriendly and do not damage human health .
3. Cheap: Natural dyes are cheap, easily obtained in nature and can be dyed without and hazard. Some natural dyes are cheaper than synthetic dyes .
4. Renewable: Natural dyes are got from renewable sources that can be connected without daunting harm to the environment. They are also recyclable .
5. Mild shades: Natural dyes are materials those provide mild shades to the textile materials like fabrics, yarns and fibers etc. they produce shades those are shooting to human eyes .
6. Nonhazardous: Natural dyes are obtained from natural sources and they are nonhazardous, do not do any harm to body skin. Some dyes like carmine are got in lipsticks, don’t origin harm or health problems when consumed .
7. Availability: Natural dyes are available in nature plenty. It is possible to collect them easily when needed. These dyes are plenty in nature and can easily be obtained from surroundings .
8. Vibrant: Natural dyes are vibrant. They are not only recyclable but also harmless. They are much healthier for the environment and for use everywhere in creatures. It is not tough to remove the natural color from plants, vegetables, fruits, or flowers etc .
9. Antimicrobial Properties: Natural dyes have the characteristics of antimicrobial that make them safer for children in specific. Fabrics dyeing with natural dyes can be used in hospital beds due to their excellent antibacterial capabilities .
10. Non Toxic: Natural dyes are nontoxic, non-allergenic and nonhazardous. They do less harm to the human beings compared to the synthetic dyes .
11. Harmless Component: Natural dyes do not contain much harmful chemicals or carcinogenic components as like as artificial dyes .
12. Safe Production: Production of natural dyes is safe, ecological, cheap and decomposable. Destroying them after use, they are easily decomposable .
13. Waste free: Production procedure of synthetic dyes is unhealthy, where natural dyes can be produced safely. These dyes do not contain any toxic chemicals or waste .
14. Feel nature: Using natural dyes is a feel like to keep in touch of nature while synthetic dyes do not have such properties of feelings. Individuals are capable of closely connected to nature and feel the significance it plays in our lives .
15. UV Absorption: Natural dyes are dyes those can absorb higher amount of UV radiation in the cloths they are applied on .
16. Sun burning: By using of clothing dyed with natural dyes is a safer way to protect individuals from sun burning .
17. Soft shade: The shades created by natural dyes or colorants are normally soft, comfortable and comforting to the human eye .
18. Harmonious: Natural dyestuffs create some exceptional color ideas and these shades are habitually harmonious .
19. Decomposable: Natural dyes are easily composed by earth after endues. Destroying these colors after endues also not injuries to human health. These dyes are easily decomposed in nature .
20. Fungus Resistance: Natural dyes are fungus resistance and they have good protection against antibacterial germs .
Natural dyes are important since they are better than synthetic dyes in many ways. Undeniably, the natural dyes are healthier products, purely because they do not comprise chemicals damaging to fitness . As such goods are improved and more dependable than the chemical artificial dyes. The vegetarians’ dyes are applied for periods in the high philosophies of humankind, resistant of relationship with manhood . Numerous of them are applied as therapeutic shrubberies such as indigo, molle, ratania, etc .
By difference, artificial dyes are very dangerous to health and are disqualified in countries with progressive environmental and community health commandments, as the community. Natural dyes does not require toxic mordants such as chromium, copper and tin, plus auxiliary uses natural those have low impact on environment . The natural dyes are more artistic, exclusive hues speaking of aristocratic, natural colors carry attractiveness, not only call responsiveness to the earshot by its illumination . Figure 3 shows the sustainable dye produced from plant leaves.
Figure 3: Sustainable dye produced from plant leaves.
The natural mixture agreement creates for a high assessment for the customer. Natural colors continuously compromise distinct shades and choices of hues are incredible to attain with synthetic colorings . The vegetable dyes characterize a sustainable source with detail to their artificial complements, they are a renewable supply. Not the artificial dyes, they come from lubricant . The natural dyes like as indigo florae have usually been a crop rotation; indigo is a pea to fix nitrogen in earth .
Artificial dyes disturb the environment together to be created, or to engagement in the textile manufacturing. Synthetic dyes are dangerous to customers and very hazardous for workforces in the industry . The natural dyes colors are a source of engagement for the rustic subdivisions of poor countries. Apart having a luster that artificial dyes can’t contest, some naturally colored textiles also have the control to heal .
When wearing garments colored with remedial plants, our body can take benefit of its healing characteristic being engrossed into the skin . Contrariwise, our bodies also engross poisonous chemicals from artificial dyes. It’s worth seeing not only what we bother for our health, but the fabric we costume next to our covering . Whatever, chosen for the dye pot can be replanted for an incessant source of dyed material .
Waste from the kitchenette can also be used; from plant to plate to fabric. The other great advantage of naturally dyed textiles is their distinctiveness. No two products will eternally be the similar due to the delicate changes that happen in the dye bath .
Synthetic dyes are so harmful since the families of chemical substituent’s those make good dyes are also poisonous to persons. Each new artificial dye developed is a type new composite, and since it’s new, no-one identifies it’s dangers to individuals and the atmosphere . Many synthetic dyes like Amaranth have arrived in the market, those are consequently been exposed to be hazardous and introverted . The world is pro-active in prohibition of unsafe dyes and dyes articulated from toxic substances .
But it’s in reverse to generate a dye, see if it’s dangerous, then interdict it if so. Particularly as so many dyes are known to be unsafe and cancer-causing. In adding to the dyes themselves, the garment finishes are frequently similarly as damaging . They can also be applied as softening substituents, and for generating other easy-care actions. In fact it is frequently the dye fixative, applied to pledge the dye color to the fabric, that origins the most difficulties .
All of these can be mostly stimulating for people with chemical sympathies. Synthetic dyes create some problems in adults and the symptoms in grownups for chemical compassion are ranges from skin rashes, annoyances, trouble intent, sickness, diarrhea, tiredness, muscle and joint pain, wooziness, difficulty inhalation, asymmetrical heartbeat etc. synthetic dyes have some dangers on kids like redness, rashes, dark circles under the eyes, hyperactivity, behavior or learning problems etc .
The arrival of synthetic dyes managed to the failure of huge natural dye production. The expansion of synthetic dyes at the opening led to a more comprehensive level of excellence and more reproducible methods of application . The main trouble of synthetic dyes is that they are not climbable as they are applied mostly with outdated systems and with products that are not initiated in plenty in nature . Another weakness of synthetic dyes is that they’re typically less dependable than natural ones and are polychromatic: dependent on the type of fabric or the mordant applied, the color can alter .
Natural dyes are sustainable those cover the area of green chemistry. Natural dyes never pollute like synthetic dyes as they are obtained from the renewable resource. Some natural dyes have very good color fastness properties although people consider synthetic dyes have much more better color fastness properties than that of natural dyes. With the arrival of synthetic dyes, the restriction of natural dyes became extent, such as minor obtainability of dye making materials due to trouble in gathering or lack of organized cultivating them. Synthetic dyes incline to remain quite steady to general oxidation and reduction processes as per their scheming and so are very tough to remove from the wastage of textile industries. On contrary, natural dyes are biodegradable without the application of any oxidant or reductant agents. If the synthetic dyes are degraded as byproducts those are directly or indirectly confirmed to be health dangers. But, it is tentative that the natural dyes totally degrade under natural conditions in a healthier way. This paper is beneficial to the personnel who are responsible for dyeing the textile materials with natural dyes and to maintaining of their sustainable characteristics.
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