Investigating the Influence of Yarn Density and Seam Construction on the Seam Performance of Woven Linen Fabric

Research Article

Adv Res Text Eng. 2022; 7(1): 1067.

Investigating the Influence of Yarn Density and Seam Construction on the Seam Performance of Woven Linen Fabric

Akram MW¹, Mahmud SH², Bin Habib MA¹, Khan A²* and Mondal BV²

¹Department of Fashion Design and Apparel Engineering, Bangladesh

²Department of Textile Engineering, National Institute of Textile Engineering & Research (NITER), Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: Abir Khan, Department of Textile Engineering, National Institute of Textile Engineering & Research (NITER), Bangladesh

Received: January 03, 2022; Accepted: January 31, 2022; Published: February 07, 2022


The impacts of fabric thread density and seam structure on woven linen fabric seam slippage and tensile strength characteristics have been investigated. Two different types of woven fabric samples were produced and prepared for the sewing process, with various levels of fabric thread density. The samples are sewn with different seams (superimposed, lapped, and bound), stitch density (10, 12, and 14 stitches/inch), and stitch type (single needle lock stitch, double needle lock stitch and double needle chain stitch). Fabric tensile characteristics, seam slippage, and seam strength in both the warp and weft directions have been tested and evaluated. The research reveals that seam strength and seam slippage are dependent on the seam type, stitch type, and SPI. Furthermore, we found that the fabric’s EPI and PPI had a considerable impact on its seam performance, with greater EPI and PPI resulting in better seam performance.

Keywords: Woven Linen Fabric; Stitch Density; Seam Slippage; Seam Strength; Seam Performance


One of the most basic requirements of human life is clothing. With the historical growth of fashion and culture, this fundamental need has become fashionable now. To accommodate need, the apparel or garment sector contains a variety of different stylish goods. Latest technologies are used in the garment industries. The fashion industry changes frequently as the demand changes [1]. Today’s clothing and fashion business is extremely volatile, and in order to maintain competitive advantage, fashion designers must focus on quality rather than price. And, as a result of these considerations, input materials’ qualities, stitching efficiency, and seam perfection become extremely critical [2].

Seams are commonly employed in the textile business to link various pieces of cloth to create a product with the necessary attributes based on the demands of the customer. Toughness, flexibility, longevity, rigidity, and the look of a well-formed seam determine seam performance [3]. Seam performance is governed by seam type, stitch density (stitches per unit length) of the seam and stress of the sewing thread. Seams are continually subjected to a variety of strains, usually in diverse orientations, because of physical movement concealed by the garment. When a seam is subjected to transversal strain, the stitch can be displaced (referred to as seam slippage) respect to the fabric layer [4]. In exceptional circumstances, the force applied may cause a rupture before the seam fails [5], since such damage is not easily repaired by seaming, sufficient yarn slippage (weft yarns slipping over warp yarns or opposite) occurs to leave the item useless [6]. As a result, determining the durability of yarns in woven textiles against slippage is critical in apparel quality management [7].

A variety of features of seam slippage have already been studied. To determine the amount of seam slippage, Galuszynski [4] established a model focused mostly on fabric structure and associated characteristics. The degree of seam slippage rises as yarn-to-yarn friction, thread contact angle (fabric architecture), the number of weft yarns in the fabric, stitch density, and yarn bending stiffness rise. Miguel et al. [8] tested seam slippage in a variety of woolen and worsted textiles in both the warp and weft directions. They discovered that clarity, polyamide content, finishing type, and cover factor are the traditional characteristics that have the greatest influence on seam slippage. To anticipate the seam opening qualities of woven upholstery textiles, Yildirim developed a method that uses non-linear regression numerical method. According to these unique materials, the researcher concluded that textile material physical attributes, particularly filling yarn density, have a larger impact in seam opening behavior than stitch density. Malciauskiene et al. [9] looked at the influence of weave pattern on imbalanced cloth seam slippage. The weaving type was discovered to have a substantial impact on seam slippage. In a separate study they have studied the influence of weave, weft yarn density and warp yarn density on seam slippage in textiles made from wool fiber [9]. They came to the conclusion that the fabric weave and weft setting parameters have a significant impact on the slippage tolerance of yarns at a seam in woven textiles, which can be projected using a two-factor polynomial second order formula [10] Pasayev et al. [11] investigated ways for reducing chenille fabric seam slippage. Weft yarn density of textile, the amount of interwoven chenille yarns over warp yarns and stitch density are all affected by seam slippage and sewing orientation according to researchers. They also proposed a conceptual framework that discussed the energy distribution supplied to stitched structures under applied loads to back up their research observations [12]. It was discovered that increasing the number of cloth layers sewed together will reduce seam slippage. Upon an inspection standpoint, seam integrity as a result of seam slippage increase is a further essential characteristic of stitched structural behavior [13]. Brain [14] attempted to connect stitch toughness qualities to thread ductility by applying certain adjustments to Burtonwood and Chamberlain’s minimal level loop strength hypothesis [15]. Whereas the suggested approach showed encouraging results on observations. It was considered that more research into the fabric’s influence to seam durability was required.

Few researches have been carried out on the seam slippage phenomena of elastic woven textiles. In particular, Gurarda [3] examined the seam efficiency of PET/Nylon-elastane woven textiles, taking into account the weft density, weave pattern, and sewing thread as factors. The findings indicated that higher the sewing thread size improves seam effectiveness and performance. It was also discovered that utilizing lycra in the fabric’s weft direction improves seam efficiency when compared to the warp direction, however employing elastic yarns in the weft direction eliminated the discrepancies. In another study, Gurarda and Meric [3] explored at the displacement and grinning tendency of lockstitch seams on stretchy woven textiles as they were cycled loading. The trials included two distinct textile weave patterns (twill and plain), two distinct weft densities (26 and 29 weft/cm), and two distinct lycra yarns (PET/elastane air-covered and twisted yarn). The findings indicate that when weft density decreases and fabric flexibility increases, seam displacement and the grinning rise.

There are several researches on various areas of stretchy cloth seam reliability and performance [3]. Earlier studies have also revealed that there is no detailed examination on the seam slippage and durability of stretchy woven textiles created with specified elastic values throughout a broad variety of levels [16]. So, more investigation about seam characteristics of these types of materials sewed with various stitch densities at various tensile stresses was needed. The principal focus of this study was to investigate the impact of material elongation and stitch density on seam slippage and durability of flexible textiles.


Sample preparation

Woven fabrics (linen) were used for the study.

We had used three types of seams- superimposed, lapped and bound, three SPI variations- 10, 12 and 14 and three types of stitchessingle needle lock stitch (SNLS), double needle lock stitch (DNLS) and double needle chain stitch (DNCS). The thread count was used for needle-20/3 Ne, bobbin and looper-20/2 Ne. For SNLS and DNLS, we used JUKI machine (Model: DDL-8000A) and for DNCS, YAMATA machine (Model: FY3800DA). We used stich per inch- 12 and single needle lock stich machine for “seam strength” and “seam slippage” determination where seam type was variable for the first case. In second case, superimposed seam was fixed and single needle lock stich machine was used for testing seam strength and seam slippage maintaining variable stich per inch. In third case, superimposed seam was fixed and stitch per inch was 12 for seam strength and seam slippage determination while stitch type was variable.

Fabric tensile testing

For testing tensile strength of fabric, Instron 5500R machine was used. ASTM D 5034 (2001) standard was followed for evaluating tensile properties of fabrics. Test speed made sure that fabric failure occurs within 20±3 seconds.

Seam slippage and strength testing

In this study a fixed seam opening technique was used to evaluate the seam slippages of samples.

British standard “BS EN ISO 13936-1(2004)” was used for dimension of the samples and apparatus setting. The universal tensile machine (Instron 5500R) was used to find out the seam slippage. The tests speed was maintained was 50mm/min. Following the ASTM D 1683 (2004) standard, values of seam strength were calculated. Here test speed maintained was 50 mm/min. Testing conditions were standard testing conditions i.e., 22±2°C and 65±2% relative humidity. Seam slippage of each sample was found using the ISO 13936-2 method where maximum force was 60N, speeds was 50mm/min and measurement time was 30 seconds. Seam slippage and seam strength values both in warp and weft direction were averaged.

Results and Discussion

Seam strength depends on seam type, stitch type, stitch density, fabric strength and the tension of the thread that is applied in the seam [17]. Stitch density (number of stitches over a given length of seam) has direct influence on seam strength. Seam failure in a piece of clothing can happen because of either the sewing string failing to leave the fabric unblemished or texture burst, or both breaking at the same. Seam quality is trying in nearly an indistinguishable way from texture breaking quality. The quality of a seam or sewing should measure up to that of the material keeping in mind the end goal to have adjusted development that will withstand the powers experienced in the piece of clothing of which the seam in a section. Seam quality differs texture to texture because of method for weave or development and string check varieties. Tension developed in the needle thread has a significant effect on seam efficiency and lower tension during stitching improves the seam strength and seams efficiency to a greater extent. This happens because under sudden stress, some flexibility allows the seam to improve seam strength. When the tension in needle thread is high, the fabric gets pulled at the seam leading to a puckered, unstable seam that ultimately results in low seam strength and efficiency.