Impact of Various Covid -19 Vaccines on General Health and Different Age Groups in Pakistan

Research Article

Ann Transl Med Epidemiol. 2023; 8(1): 1018.

Impact of Various Covid -19 Vaccines on General Health and Different Age Groups in Pakistan

Anwaar Iftikhar*; Nazim Hussain*; Mubeen Akhtar; Sana Hussain; Rida Farooq; Ruhma Maqsood; Mehvish Mumtaz; Muhammad Hamza Ashraf; Muhammad Asif Muneer

Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Anwaar Iftikhar & Nazim Hussain Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: [email protected]; [email protected]

Received: August 17, 2023 Accepted: September 27, 2023 Published: October 04, 2023


The virus that causes Covid-19, known as SARS-CoV-2 [Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2], has affected various regions of Pakistan. It is already known on a global level and has an impact on many aspects of human life. Vaccination is considered one of the most effective methods of eliminating COVID-19. The main objective of this research is to assess both the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 vaccines among Pakistanis. Countries have approved numerous vaccines, including Pfizer-Biotech and Moderna, Sinopharm, Sputnik V, Sinovac, CanSino, and Vaxzevria. Therefore, Pakistan officially used Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Moderna, Sinopharm, Sinovac, and CanSino. The approach involves a cross-sectional evaluation of the effects of COVID-19 vaccinations among Pakistanis. There have also been reports of people in various regions of the country refusing vaccinations. The analysis also focuses on age factors, such as middle, upper, and old age. Gender analysis was also included in the study. The vaccinations assessment comprises 4000 people who received vaccine doses in Pakistan. The Chi-Square approach is used to assess the long-term effects of COVID-19 vaccinations, and a sample t-test is used to determine age-related adverse effects. People usually reported mild pain at the injection sites after the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, with fatigue and headache being the most prevalent side effects. The age range of the participants was >50, >35 to 50, and >18 to 35 years. Soreness was the most prevalent side effect in all age groups after the second dose. Individuals over the age of 50 are more likely to experience negative effects following the COVID-19 vaccination. Females preferred less severe side effects over men. Furthermore, positive results include strong immunity against COVID-19, decreased hospitalization compared to unvaccinated patients, and more rapid recovery among those who have been vaccinated. The first and second COVID-19 vaccine doses were predictable. The most prevalent adverse effects were headache and fever, although comorbidities and prior diseases were also linked. Several states have begun the vaccination procedure, providing them with a significant advantage against COVID-19 with about 90% accuracy.

Keywords: Covid-19 vaccination; Adverse effects; SARS CoV-2; WHO; Health diseases


COVID-19 has not only affected people's lifestyles but has also made their lives chaotic. It has severely damaged Pakistan's economy. COVID-19 has impacted society, increasing the emergency worldwide and causing an extensive public health crisis. COVID-19 variations have been found worldwide [24]. SARS-CoV is a member of the Coronavirus family, with the genre beta-coronavirus. It is 30 kilobytes and expresses 29 distinct types of protein [2]. COVID-19 originated in China and was declared a pandemic in March 2020 [6]. The pandemic effects list will be relevant until the vaccine is complete and administered [15].

On November 12, 2020, WHO issued data containing 212 vaccines, including attenuated, inactivated, vector-based, and DNA-based vaccines [29]. As of July, there were 2,022,598 cases, with 6.46 million fatalities. Vaccination against COVID-19 was a potential technique for dealing with the issue. Many states have been striving to improve their healthcare and economic strategies in order to keep the current epidemic under control as much as possible. Most developing countries are currently grappling with the challenge of adapting to and using their limited financial and medical resources in the face of extreme challenges. These countries' governments are making significant efforts to control the virus's global spread [1].

The planet has shrunk to the size of a town, with regular surveillance of the emergence and reappearance of localized breakouts or global epidemics that swiftly spread contagious illnesses [19]. According to data, the total death rate for those suffering from chronic disease (COVID-19) ranges from 2.0% to 3.0% globally, which is somewhat higher than the H1NI fatality rate? This viral infection (Covid-19) is still a common and dangerous illness in comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome [16]. Covid-19 has distinct traits that set it apart from other viruses. Individuals infected with COVID-19 may develop mild to severe symptoms, with a significant percentage of persons remaining symptom-free. The most commonly reported coronavirus symptoms are coughing and breathing problems [4].

For unknown reasons, the spread of COVID-19 disease in children is frequently mild or moderate as compared to that in adults. However, serious and fatal effects on children have also been reported [28]. Our globe divides itself into pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 zones, just like before and after World War II. Economic growth began to decline in the second quarter of 2019, but it appeared that the situation would improve in 2020, led by the large emerging countries, and return to sustainable development by 2021 [14]. Several vaccinations are available, and around 13 different vaccines are presently in use. Because the virus is still relatively new, the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines are unknown. Sinovac Biotech China's Corona Vac, a pure attenuated coronavirus vaccine, has been reported to provide active protection against Covid-19.

It is critical to develop an effective vaccine against the infectious virus SARS-CoV-2, which is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The COVID-19 vaccines employ several methods to provide disease defense; nevertheless, the process by which the immune system might produce symptoms Outstanding work soon after the discovery of the COVID-19 genome has resulted in more than 300 vaccine programs [12]. As a result, Pakistan has changed physically and emotionally due to comparing good and bad influences [3,27].

In Pakistan, various vaccines have been administered to people in two doses with a two-month gap. On May 8, 2020, Pakistan received the first delivery of Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines from the COVAX Facility. Recently, Sinopharm, Sinovac, CanSino-BiO, and Sputnik doses have been administered in Pakistan [19]. Additionally, it is well-acknowledged that COVID-19 vaccines could have serious adverse effects. Trial studies of the Sinopharm Covid-19 vaccine's phases 1 and 2 were conducted in China through one survey for each stage [20]. COVID-19-neutralizing antibody response was elicited by the vaccination with minimal risk of side effects, according to data from 4000 individuals [21].

Pfizer and Moderna RNA-based vaccines have drawn the greatest attention in terms of vaccination adverse responses due to their quick development and manufacturing [19a. By March 10, 2022, a total of 101,881,176 people in Pakistan had received the vaccination, with 128.074,138 receiving at least one dose and 4,869,245 receiving a booster dose. [20a]. Immunization against COVID-19 could lower the risk of developing and transmitting the virus that causes COVID-19. Vaccines can also help prevent major diseases and death. So far, all available data on the adverse effects of the COVID-19 vaccination have been published through manufacturer-funded trials that follow drug authority guidelines and are overseen by third parties.

As a result, this research aimed to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccines' beneficial and harmful effects among Pakistanis [22]. As a result, this investigation sought to gather information about the adverse impact of COVID-19 immunization following the first and successive doses, as suggested by the government of Pakistan.


The diagram illustrates the flow chart of the strategy employed in the research to examine the impact of vaccination for COVID-19, as represented in Figure 1.