The Alarming Situation of Hospital Acquired Multi-drug Resistant Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Population in Developing World

Research Article

Austin J Urol. 2022; 8(1): 1076.

The Alarming Situation of Hospital Acquired Multi-drug Resistant Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Population in Developing World

Kakakhel MK, Arshad and Khan MK*

Institute of Kidney Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Pakisthan

*Corresponding author: Muhammad Kamran Khan, Assistant Professor Pediatric Urology, Institute of kidney diseases, Hayat Abad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan

Received: July 13, 2022; Accepted: August 06, 2022; Published: August 13, 2022


Objectives: The aim of this study was to find the magnitude of multi drug resistant UTI in paediatric urology, showing different uropathogenic bacteria, sensitivity pattern, associated urologic pathologies and surgical procedures.

Material and Methods: All Paediatric patients with some urologic procedure in this institute who have multi or extensive or pan drug resistant UTI were included, the record retrospectively collected from hospital record system and analysed with SPSS.

Results: We total 54 patients included having mean age of 5.4 years and predominantly male patients. The three most common MDR uropathogens were Pseudomonas aueroginosa (63%), E.coli (18.5%) and Kliebsiella spp (9.3%). Other MDR organisms were Enterococcus, Providencia, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus. Overall most sensitive drug was colistin (64.8%), followed by Fosfomycin (18.5%), Carbapenems (16.6%), Aminoglycosides (12.9%), Tigecycline (11.1%), Nitrofurantoin (7.4%), Cephalosporin (5.5%), Vancomycin (5.5%), Linzolid ( 5.5%), Septran (3.7%), while Teicoplanin, Fusidic acid and chloramphenicol all 1.8%. We found two culture reports of Pseudomonas aueroginosa as pan drug resistant. The most common urologic pathologies associated with MDR UTI was urinary stone disease, neurogenic bladder and posterior urethral valves. The prevalent surgical procedures were those, underwent for stone diseases. A substantial increase in hospitalization time noted in these patients.

Conclusion: The emergence of multi drug resistance is reaching an alarming level in Paeds urology. Pseudomonas aueroginosa causing UTI replacing E.coli with some pan drug resistant species is worrisome. The wide spread use of broad spectrum antibiotics at primary healthcare level and even without culture reports in the tertiary care level needs revision. This has significant impact on the child morbidity, length of hospital stay and finally financiall loss.

Keywords: Multi drug resistant; Urinary tract infection; Pseudomonas; E.coli; Kliebsiellaspp; Colistin; Carbapenems

Abbreviation and Acronyms

UTI: Urinary tract infection; MDR: Multi Drug Resistant; XDR: Extensive Drug Resistant; PDR: Pan Drug Resistant; CFU: Colony Forming Units; PCNL: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy; CU: Cystourethroscopy; DJS: Double J Stent; URS: Ureterorenoscopy; ICL: Intra Corporeal Lithotripsy; CIC: Clean Intermittent Catheterization; PUV: Posterior Urethral Valves; RIRS: Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery; RPG: Retrograde Pyelogram


Urinary tract infection is defined by the presence of 105 CFU/ml of pathogenic bacteria in a clean catch urine specimen or 104 CFU/ ml for catheter specimen, which may present as frequency, urgency, dysuria, cloudy urine, fever and vomiting [1]. Bacterial UTI is one of the most common infections in paediatric patients [2]. Among infants presenting with fever, other unwell children and older children who manifest urinary symptoms, 6-8 %will have UTI [3]. The high prevalence of UTI result in almost 8.3 million physician visits, one lac hospitalization per year, 1 million emergency visits and drive significant use of antibiotics around the world which cost $1 billion per annum in the United States [4,5]. Most children have other illnesses in addition to UTI and the urinary symptoms are usually not prominent thus the urine is not tested for infection. This causes UTIs to go un-noticed and not accounted for the childhood morbidity.

In 2010 the international consensus defined Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) as non-susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial in three or more classes, based on laboratory testing. Extensive Drug Resistance (XDR) is defined as sensitivity to only one or two antimicrobials while resistant to all other categories. Pan Drug Resistance (PDR) is defined as resistance to all classes of antimicrobials [6]. Antimicrobials are the mainstay of treatment option for bacterial UTI, but appropriate selection of antibiotics is necessary to improve treatment outcome and prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. As their consumption is considered to be the main risk factor for the drug resistance [7]. Unfortunately because of extensive, improper and un-necessary use of antibiotics the antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens reached currently up to an alarming level [8]. Now the antimicrobial resistance is considered an international public health problem. The primary health care got now a significant contribution to this issue, because this is place for almost 80% of the total antibiotics use. Subsequently the multi-drug resistant infections cause increased morbidity, mortality, financial burden on patient and healthcare system [9].

This study is aimed at highlighting the burden of the problem, prevalence of different organisms, antibiotic resistance pattern and different Paediatric diseases and urological procedures which may contribute as risk factor for developing UTI.

Materials and Methods

After approval from research ethics board of the institute of kidney diseases and transplant, this observational study included all patients up to age 16 years having multi, extensive or pan drug resistant UTI. The data retrieved from hospital record system from June 2017 to December 2020. The data detailed the type of organism with its antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance, disease and type of surgical procedure underwent. The data analysed with IBM® SPSS®, version 20.0.


We included 54 patients who developed multi-drug resistant UTI, with mean age of 5.4 years, including 38 (70.3%) male and 16 (29.6%) female patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.28 days, with minimum 2 and maximum 26 days. The multi-drug resistant organisms profile is detailed in Table 1.The antimicrobial sensitivity to colistin was (n=35, 64.8%), Fosfomycin (n=10, 18.5%), Carbapenems (n=9, 16.6%), Aminoglycosides (n=7, 12.9%), Tigecycline (n=6, 11.1%), Nitrofurantoin (n=4, 7.4%), Cephalosporin (n=3, 5.5%), Vancomycin (n=3, 5.5%), Linzolid (n=3, 5.5%), Septran (n=2, 3.7%), while Teicoplanin, Fusidic acid and chloramphenicol all has sensitivity of1.8%. We found two culture reports of Pseudomonas aueroginosa resistant to all available antibiotics. About individual sensitivity, Pseudomonas aueroginosa was sensitive to colistin in 79.3%, Fosfomycin in 17.2%, Carbapenems in 10.3% and aminoglycosides in 3.4%. E.coli was sensitive to colistin in 54%, Carbapenems in 45% and Fosfomycin in 9%. Kliebsiellaspp was sensitive to colistin in 66%, Fosfomycin in 33.3%, Carbapenems and Nitrofurantoin 16.6% each. The urologic diseases in these patients were urinary stone disease (n=26, 48.14%), followed by neurogenic bladder (n=5, 9.2%), posterior urethral valves (n=4, 7.4%), pelvi-ureteral junction obstruction (n=3, 5.6%), isolated UTI (n=3, 5.6%), vesicoureteral reflux (n=3, 5.6%), ureterocele (n=2, 3.7%), pyelonephritis (n=1, 1.9%), bladder tumor (n=1, 1.9%), psoas abscess (n=1, 1.9%) and post ureteric re-implantation (n=1, 1.9%). The urologic procedures done are shown in (Figure 1).

Citation: Kakakhel MK, Arshad and Khan MK. The Alarming Situation of Hospital Acquired Multi-drug Resistant Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Population in Developing World. Austin J Urol. 2022; 8(1): 1076.