Cross-sectional Survey of Bovine Fasciolosis in and Around Seyo District of Kelem Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia

Research Article

Austin J Vet Sci & Anim Husb. 2017; 4(1): 1032.

Cross-sectional Survey of Bovine Fasciolosis in and Around Seyo District of Kelem Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia

Kebede B¹*, lemessa A³, Hailu S², Habtamu T¹, Adugna T³ and Getahun F³

¹Veterinary Drug and Animal Feed Administration and Control authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

²Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

³Seyo District Livestock and Fisheries Office Dembi Dollo, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: Bedaso Kebede, Veterinary Drug and Animal Feed Administration and Control authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Received: January 20, 2017; Accepted: March 03, 2017; Published: March 10, 2017


A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to November, 2016 to determine prevalence bovine fasciolosis in Seyo district, Kelem wollega Zone of Oromia Regional state. A total of 384 fecal samples were randomly collected from local breed cattle and all samples were subjected to standard sedimentation test at Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center aimed to detect the presence of Fasciola eggs. The overall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis was 91(23.7%). Associated risk factors age, sex, body conditions of cattle and PA’s were not significantly associated (p>0.05) with the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis. In the study area fasciolosis was a main constraint for the cattle. Therefore, chemotherapeutic measures should be regularly taken to overcome problems induced by fasciolosis.

Keywords: Prevalence; Bovine; Fasciolosis; Seyo district


Livestock is an important component of farming system in Ethiopia and that provides a draft power, milk, meat, manure, hides, skin and other products [1]. Currently, livestock population of Ethiopia estimated to be 55.4 million cattle, 26.5 million sheep and 23.78 million goats CSA [2]. However, livestock resources productivity in the country is low due to several constraints among them diseases plays several roles. Fasciolosis is a disease which imposes direct and indirect economic impact on livestock production particularly on the sheep and cattle [3,4]. Bovine Fasciolosis is an economically important parasite disease of cattle caused by Genus Fasciola of the two important species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The distribution of Fasciola hepatica is wide spread in temperate area and tropical high land of Africa, while Fasciola gigantica is wide spread in most parts of tropical Africa [5]. Intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica is Lymnea trancatula which is mud snail that prefers moist temperature condition (15°C-22°C). Lymnea trancatula is capable of aestivation for at least years in a dry mud [6]. Fasciolosis is a serious problem in highland of Ethiopia where cattle raising are major to local economy [7]. Apart from its veterinary and economic importance, Fasciolosis has recently been shown to be re-emerging and widespread zoonoses affecting people [8]. Seyo district is one of the potential areas in livestock population in the country which is lower in production and productivity due to disease. Among diseases Fasciolosis is the one that locally called ‘Bale’ [9]. However, no previous studies on the epidemiology of Fasciolosis in cattle were conducted in Seyo district of Oromia regional state. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bovine Fasciolosis in Seyo district Kelem Wollega Zone.

Materials and Methods

Study area

The study was conducted from May to November, 2016 in Seyo district of Kelem Wollega Zone southwestern Ethiopia which is 652km far from the capital city Addis Ababa. Geographically located at latitude and longitude of 8032oN and 34048oE respectively. The climate alternate with long summer rain fall (May to September) and winter dry season (October to April) with mean annual rain fall of 750mm-1200mm.The agro climate condition fall within tropical sub-humid climate and the altitude range from 1705-1850 above sea level with average daily temperature 25oc [9]. The vegetation type of the area is characterized by cash crops. The district covers an area of 79,849 hectares and it is bordered by Hawa galan district at east, Anfilo district at west, Gidami district at north and Iluababora zone at south.

Study population

Study population includes local breeds of cattle managed under traditional management system. There are a total numbers of 80,122 cattle in the Seyo woreda. Among those 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined from Ripha, Gudina, Kure and Karo peasant association (PA’s) of Seyo district.

Study design

The cross-sectional study was designed with the objective to determine the prevalence of bovine Fasciolosis in Seyo district. Body condition for each cattle was determined according to Nicholson and Butterworth [10]. The age of study animals was estimated based on dentition given by De Lahunte and Habel [11] for age determination and information from owners and classified as (1-3 years) young and (>3 years) adult.

Sample size determination and sampling method

The animals were selected by using simple random sampling method with an expected prevalence of 50% was taken in to consideration since there was no earlier coprological research work on Fasciolosis in the area. The desired sample size for the study was calculated using 95% confidence interval and at 5% absolute precision [12].

n=1.962* Pexp (1-Pexp)/d2

where, n= required sample size

Pexp = Expected prevalence

d= Absolute precision

Totally, 384 cattle were randomly sampled in Seyo district to determine the prevalence.

Fecal sample collection and laboratory techniques

In the laboratory coproscopic examination were performed to detect the presence of Fasciola eggs according to standard technique as described by Hasen and Perry [13]. Fresh fecal samples for parasitological examination were collected directly from the rectum by using disposable plastic gloves and placed in clean screw capped universal bottles. Each sample was labeled with date of submission, age, sex, body condition and place of origin (PA’s). Samples were preserved with 10% formalin solution to avoid the eggs development and hatching for laboratory diagnosis then transported to Bedelle regional laboratory for parasitological examination.

Data management and analysis

All Data generated from study were entered in to Microsoft Excel data system. The data were thoroughly screened for errors and properly coded before subjecting to statistical analysis. The Data were imported from the Microsoft excel and analyzed using STATA software 11.0 computer to determine the variation in infection prevalence in potential risk factor (Age, Sex, PA’s and Body condition). Significances were considered with the “P” value less than 0.05.


Out of 384 cattle fecal sample examined an overall prevalence of 91(23.7%) were found positive for fasciolosis in the study area. The higher prevalence was recorded in Gudina PA’s 22(24.44%) and lower prevalence was in Karo PA’s 24(23.08%). Statistical analysis showed that no prevalence significance (P>0.05) difference between PA’s (Table 1).