Sero-Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia (CBPP) and Its Associated Potential Risk Factors in Selected Districts of East Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Research Article

Austin J Vet Sci & Anim Husb. 2018; 5(2): 1043.

Sero-Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia (CBPP) and Its Associated Potential Risk Factors in Selected Districts of East Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Wakgari M¹, Kitila G², Chali I¹, Merdasa D¹, Guta D¹, Gezahegn E¹ and Kebede B³*

¹Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Centre, Bedelle, Ethiopia

²Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

³Veterinary Drug and Animal Feed Administration and Control Authority, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: Kebede B, Veterinary Drug and Animal Feed Administration and Control Authority, Ethiopia

Received: April 03, 2018; Accepted: May 29, 2018; Published: June 05, 2018


Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides small colonies and it is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia. Therefore, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia and to assess the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in the selected districts of East Wollega zone Western Oromia from January 2017 to April 2017. A total of 447 sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies of the disease by using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). In this study, districts, peasant associations, age, sex, herd size and market history were considered as risk factors. Thus, the overall seroprevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in this study was 6.9%. The seroprevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia at districts level were 1% and 5.8% in Limmu and Gida Ayana district, respectively. There was a statistically significant variation (p<0.05) in prevalence of the disease among the districts, age, peasant associations and market history. However, herd size and sex were not significant (p>0.05) with the serostatus of the animal. In conclusion, even if, the overall prevalence of CBPP in East Wollega Zone was low (6.9%) due to the behavior of the diseases since it is significant at herd level, which warrants the government to follow appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of the disease and appropriate controlling and prevention should be designed in general as a country level.

Keywords: Seroprevalence; CBPP; Risk factors; cELISA; East wollega zone; Oromia regional state; Ethiopia


Contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious and contagious respiratory disease of Bovidae caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides “small colony” (MmmSC) with a major impact on livestock production and a potential for rapid spread. CBPP is endemic to parts of Africa, parts of India and China; with minor outbreaks in the Middle East. Countries free of CBPP include the US, UK, and Australia. In almost all African countries CBPP is a fortifiable disease with official controls on the import of cattle. Despite these control, there are nomadic people which move freely across borders of certain countries such as the Fulani in West Africa and the Maasai in east Africa which may have contributed to CBPP spread. Wars, famine and inadequate financing of veterinary departments have resulted in CBPP running riot in east and central Africa [1].

World Animal Health organization reported outbreaks of CBPP in 20 countries, with the highest number of cases in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is one of the African countries were CBPP is causing enormous economic losses through cattle morbidity and mortality. Although there is no systematic epidemiological investigation to show the distribution and impact of CBPP in the country, it is considered as the major disease of cattle in the country especially in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas [2].

Respiratory disease outbreak was occurred in Bako Agricultural Research Center farm at 2011 located in western Oromia, which significant proportion of animals were affected before the disease is diagnosed as CBPP by National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC) and in collaboration with Bako Agricultural Research Center (NAHDIC, 2011). As a result, the center was decided not to distribute cross breed heifers or any cattle from the center for farmers until the problem is addressed and further CBPP surveillance is conducted to know the presence and distribution of the disease in the area. So far there was no systematic study conducted to look into the status of this economically important disease in the area. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of CBPP in the area.

Materials and Methods

Description of the study area

The study was carried out in Limu and Gida Ayana districts of Eastern Wollega zone of Western Oromia region and from each district three peasant associations were selected. The altitude of these districts ranges from 650 to 2320 meters above sea level. These districts have 36% is arable or cultivable land (15.2% was under annual crops), 27.4% pasture, 16.4% forest, and the remaining 20.2% is considered swampy, marshy or otherwise unusable. The estimated total population of 125,527; 63,418 and 62,109 are male and female respectively [3].

Study animals

The study animals include all cattle populations which were kept under extensive husbandry systems. Cattle above one year old age of local cattle and those with no history of vaccination before one year back were used.

Study design

A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two districts. Limmu and G/Ayana districts were selected purposively based on history of previous suspected out breaks reports. Peasant associations (PA’s) were purposively selected based on the district livestock population and outbreak report. Peasant association selected from G/Ayana district was Lalistu Gudina, Doro Obora and Sirba Wadessa and from Limmu district was Melka Lemi, Dagem Silasse and Sapera.

Sampling and sample size determination

A total of 447 samples were selected based on district livestock populations and PAs size of the district Gida Ayana (212) and Limmu (235). The sampling methods were purposive sampling based on CBPP status as outbreak area, suspected area and free area. Since the approximate prevalence of the disease in the region was not known, 50% expected prevalence and a 5% absolute level of precision was considered to calculate the number of animals to be sampled [4]. However, a totally of 447 sero-samples were collected from the two districts of six peasant association.

Sample collection

Animals were restrained by owners and 10ml of blood sample were collected from the jugular vein using vacutainer tubes. The samples were kept under the shade in a slant position for twenty four hours. The sera sample were transferred to serum tubes, labeled with a code and kept at -200C until they were tested. Corresponding to each sample code, the age, breed, body condition, PA and sex of every animal’s information were collected and registered on a separate case book. Therefore, in this study, districts, PAs, age, sex, breed, body condition were considered as risk factors.

Laboratory test

A total of 447 serum samples were collected from the study areas and were submitted to Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center. Sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoides sub species mycoides small colony type by using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent asssay (cELISA).

Data analysis

The collected data were stored in Microsoft office excel 2007 spreadsheet. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20 software. The overall sero-prevalence of CBPP was determined using descriptive statistics. Sero-prevalence was calculated by dividing the number of positive test results by the total number of animals tested. Chi-square test was used to determine association between explanatory variables and the serostatus of the animals. In all analyses confidence level of 95% and p–value of 0.05 was used for statistical test of significance.


Prevalence of contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia (CBPP) using c-ELISA

The overall seroprevalence of CBPP in the study area was 6.9%. The highest CBPP seroprevalence (5.8%) was observed in Gida Ayana district while the lowest seroprevalence (1.0%) was recorded in Limu district. There was a statistically significant variation (X2=17.214a, P-value=0.000) in CBPP seroprevalence among the two districts (Table 1).