Rhinosinusitis in Companion Animals

Mini Review

Austin J Allergy. 2021; 7(1): 1036.

Rhinosinusitis in Companion Animals

Galler A*

Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Austria

*Correspoing author: Alexandra Galler, Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria

Received: April 12, 2021; Accepted: May 08, 2021; Published: May 15, 2021


Nasal disease is a frequently encountered problem in companion animals, especially in cats. Typical signs include nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal stridor, dysphagia, mouth-breathing and cough [1- 4]. While acute feline nasal disease is commonly caused by infections with herpes or calicivirus, the diagnostic work up for chronic nasal discharge is far more laborious.

A common diagnosis in cats with chronic nasal discharge is Idiopathic Chronic Rhinosinusitis (ICRS). This final diagnosis is based on the exclusion of all known possible reasons for chronic nasal discharge and can only be settled after a thorough diagnostic work-up [1,3-5].

Chronic nasal discharge in cats can be caused by many different diseases like e.g. nasal neoplasia, mycotic rhinitis, foreign body rhinitis, dental disease, congenital malformations (cleft palate), oronasal fistulae, nasopharyngeal polyps, nasopharyngeal stenosis or traumata [1,4-6]. As a targeted therapy is dependent on the underlying disease, systematic diagnostic work-up is crucial.

Nasal Neoplasia

In about 30-50 % of cats with chronic nasal discharge a nasal neoplasia can be diagnosed. 90% of nasal neoplasia are malignant in cats (Figure 1). Although they grow invasive, they rarely metastasize and are often locally restricted. In 90% of cats with nasal lymphoma the nose is the solitary location. Nasal lymphoma is the most often encountered nasal neoplasia, followed by adenocarcinoma. Other tumours (e.g. fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma) may also be found [2-4,7]. Cats with nasal neoplasia are commonly older (8-10years), more often have unilateral, haemorrhagic discharge, facial deformations and have a shorter duration of signs then cats with other nasal disorders. However there is strong overlap especially regarding cats with ICRS [2-5]. The diagnosis of nasal neoplasia can only be confirmed by histopathology. If staging (thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound) confirms local disease radiation therapy is the preferred treatment. If radiation is not available or the disease is not restricted to the nose cats are treated by systemic chemotherapy (e.g. COP-based protocols in nasal lymphoma). The prognosis is fair, with complete remission in 70% and median survival times of up to 30 months [8-10].